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  1. Timeline 1249 Louis IX takes Damietta. Death of al-Salih (r. 1240-49). Turan-Shah absent. Shajar al-Durr conceals death. Feb 1250 Muslims defeat Crusaders at al-Mansura.

  2. Timeline 1250 Turan-Shah arrives in Egypt. Louis IX captured, then released in exchange for Damietta. May 1250 Turan-Shah murdered by the Mamluks. Shajar al-Durr elected sultana, reigns for three months, then replaced by Aybeg al-Turkumani.

  3. Timeline 1260-77 Reign of al-Zahir Baybars as sultan. 1268 Baybars takes Antioch. 1270 Louis IX dies while crusading in North Africa. 1279-90 Reign of al-Mansur Qalawun as sultan. 1289 Qalawun takes Tripoli.

  4. Timeline 1290-93 Reign of al-Ashraf Khalil as sultan. 1291 Khalil takes Acre and mops up most remaining crusader strongholds on Levantine coast. Cyprus remains in hands of crusaders until 16th century, with occasional crusades launched from there with no success. No European states on Levantine coast until colonial era.

  5. Word List Timeline bahr (river) burj (tower) 1250-1382 Bahri Mamluk Sultanate. 1382-1517 Burji Mamluk Sultanate.

  6. Word List Timeline Sufis (Muslim mystics) tariqa (Sufi group) Ottomans 1258 End of ‘Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad. 1261 Baybars establishes ‘Abbasid caliphate in Cairo. 1517 Ottomans take power from Mamluks.

  7. Object List Façade of complex of Qalawun (1284). (Ernst J. Grube, The World of Islam (London: Paul Hamlyn, 1966), p. 107.) Interior of mausoleum of Qalawun. (Ernst J. Grube, The World of Islam, p. 107.) Sultan Hasan Complex, Cairo. 1356-1363. (F) Sultan Hasan Complex. Plan. (Ernst J. Grube, The World of Islam, p. 108.) Sultan Hasan Complex. View from the East. (F) Sultan Hasan Mosque, Cairo. 1356-1363. Ablution fountain. Courtyard. (F) F = Ferret, A = Archnet

  8. Object List Sultan Hasan Mosque, Cairo. 1356-1363. Detail, compared with the dome of the tomb of Hafiz, Shiraz (bt. 1953). (F) Sultan Hasan Mosque, Cairo. 1356-1363. View of qibla wall, main iwan (mosque). (F) Sultan Hasan Mosque, Cairo. 1356-1363. View of the mihrab of the Sanctuary iwan (interior). (F) Minarets of Jerusalem - one of the four from the Haram al-Sharif compound. 15th c. (F - three slides) Minbar (summer pulpit) of al-Aqsa Mosque. Jerusalem. 14th c. (F) F = Ferret, A = Archnet

  9. Object List Interior of the Taynal Mosque of Tripoli. 14th c. (F) Portal of Amir Taynal Mosque of Tripoli. 14th c. (F) Interior gate of the Taynal Mosque of Tripoli. 1336. (F) Entrance portals and muqarnas, Tripoli. (F) Gate of the Madrasa al-Qartawiyya of Tripoli. 1316-1326. (F) Entrance to al-Ashrafiyya Madrasa. Jerusalem. 15th c. (F) Mihrab of mosque, Madrasat al-Firdaws. Aleppo, Syria. 13th c. (F) Stalactite, Madrasat al-Firdaws; Aleppo, Syria. 13th c. (F) F = Ferret, A = Archnet

  10. Object List Entrance to cotton vendors’ souk. Jerusalem. (F) Turba (Tomb) of Turkan Khatun, Jerusalem. (F) Detail of frieze of turba of Turkan Khatun, Jerusalem. (F) Sabil of Kayitbay, Jerusalem. Haram al-Sharif, 15th c. (F - 2 slides) Dome of Mausoleum of Kayitbay (1474). (Robert Hillenbrand, Islamic Art and Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 1999), p. 142.) Decorative marble floor coverings. Ablutions courtyard of Qaratay Madrasa. Tripoli. (F) F = Ferret, A = Archnet

  11. Object List Wall tile of enameled ceramic. AD 1430. Damascus. Coat of arms of the Mamluk sultan, al-Ashraf Barsbay. (F) Mamluk Blazons. (Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades, Islamic Perspectives (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1999), p. 227.) Collection of gold jewels. 13th c. Necklaces. (F) Collection of gold jewels. 13th c. Necklaces and a ring. (F) Baptistère St. Louis. Egypt or Syria. c. 1300. 50.2 cm. (F) Canteen: brass hammered and inlaid with silver and black organic material. Enthroned Madonna. Syria. Mid-13th c. (F) F = Ferret, A = Archnet

  12. Object List Mamluk Glass Lamp. (Robert Hillenbrand, Islamic Art and Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 1999), p. 156.) Qur’an illumination. For Sultan Sha‘ban’s madrasa. Cairo. 1376. 74 x 51 cm. Ink, gold, and colour on paper. (F) Miniature of an automaton water dispenser. From a copy of al-Jazari’s Kitab fi Ma‘rifat al-Hiyal al-Handasiyya (Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices). From Syria or Egypt. 1315. (F) F = Ferret, A = Archnet

  13. Object List Silk tapestry-woven panel. c. 1375-1399. 27 x 107 cm. Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. (F) Mamluk carpet. Egypt. c. 1500. 1.88 x 1.34 m. (F) Mamluk Egyptian pile carpet. Early 16th c. (2 x 1.5m). (F) F = Ferret, A = Archnet