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  1. TIMELINE 1800 b.c.e. 1280 1000 587 Monarchy Abraham Moses David Destruction of Jerusalem Saul 4 b.c.e. 166-37 63 587 - 539 539-323 336-323 Maccabees Babylonian Exile Restoration Jesus Alexander Rome

  2. Babylonian Exile Jerusalem resists the invasion of Babylonians Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem - 587 b.c.e. Temple is destroyed

  3. Babylon The exiles are impressed by the wealth and splendour of Babylon Babylonian gods and goddesses are more powerful than Yahweh The exiles conclude

  4. The exiles will be persuaded to worship the Babylonian deities RISK

  5. Leading citizens taken to Babylon as exiles Crisis • Yahweh has abandoned the chosen people • God’s sacred temple has been destroyed • The people have no identity outside of their land

  6. Scribes edited sacred writings added to in light of the Exile Experience

  7. Genesis 1 - Creation Based on Babylonian mythology to teach the exiles about Yahweh using Babylonian ideas and language why?

  8. Creation story of Genesis 1 responds to the creation myth of Mesopotamia

  9. Enuma Elish Genesis 1 In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. When on high…no heaven had been named. No earth called…there was nothing but Old Father Apsu and Mummu-Tiamat…two bodies of water becoming one.

  10. Enuma Elish Genesis 1 Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness… So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. God blessed them and God said to them: be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth I (Marduk) will knead blood and bone into a savage. Man will be its name. Truly savage-man I will create He shall be charged with the service of the gods The savages will set the gods free

  11. Enuma Elish Genesis 1 Many gods and goddesses One God - Elohim Humans created to serve as slaves for the gods Humans created in God’s image to relate to God No relationship Intimate relationship

  12. Message of Gen 1 Propaganda for the God of Israel • Source of all that is • One God • Has no beginning - has no end • God transcends creation - is not subject to weakness • Created the universe to share life • Creates by mere word - emphasis on power • Created humans in God’s image and likeness to establish relationship with them

  13. Babylonians were great astrologers • had advanced knowledge of the heavens • attributed natural phenomena to divine powers Inanna Ishtar Mistress of Heaven Goddess of the morning and evening star

  14. Nanna Shamash Ishtar

  15. 6 day pattern reinforces Hebrew lifestyle and The importance of Sabbath God sustains creation and continues to be involved in creation

  16. 6 day pattern reinforces Hebrew lifestyle and The importance of Sabbath "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 9 Six days you shall labour and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates. 11 For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. God sustains creation and continues to be involved in creation

  17. The 6-day pattern of work and dedicating Sabbath to God have been in place since Moses forgetting Yahweh Abandoning this tradition risks The tradition is reinforced by showing how God worked for 6 days and rested on the 7th

  18. Creation and Evolution Fresh knowledge produced by scientific research now leads to therecognition of the theory of evolution as more than just a hypothesis Roman Catholics must believe that the spiritual soul is immediately created by God Pope John Paul II to Pontifical Academy of Sciences October 1996