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  1. TIMELINE Copy by hand the key events on the timeline and add at least 2 illustrations. You can create a mind map or an illustrated timeline. Your timeline should be thoughtful, neat, and well-created. Timelines will be turned in by tomorrow at the beginning of the class period. Your timeline will span the years 1939-1945, and maybe a little before and after those dates if you wish. Write down the 8-10 events that you think are interesting/important. Everyone’s timeline will look a little different.

  2. World War II By: Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY Additional material by Molly Lynde

  3. The Road to War: 1919-1939

  4. The Versailles Treaty

  5. A Weak League of Nations

  6. The Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations • No control of major conflicts. • No progress in disarmament. • No effective military force.

  7. The “Stab-In-The-Back” Theory German soldiers are dissatisfied.

  8. Decadence of the Weimar Republic

  9. International Agreements • Locarno Pact – 1925 • France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy • Guarantee existing frontiers • Establish DMZ 30 miles deep on East bank of Rhine River • Refrain from aggression against each other • Kellogg-Briand Pact – 1928 • Makes war illegal as a tool of diplomacy • No enforcement provisions

  10. France – False Sense of Security? The MaginotLine

  11. Important Dates 1931- Japan invades Manchuria 1935- Italy invades Ethopia 1936- Rome- Berlin Pact 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War 1936/37- Japan takes Nanjing China 1936- Hitler takes Rhineland 1938- Hitler takes Austria 1938- Hitler takes Sudetenland 1938- Munich Agreement/ Appeasement 1939- Hitler takes Czhechoslovakia

  12. Czechoslavakia Crisis • Created after WWI, millions of ethnic Germans live there, it’s called Sudetenland • Land rich in minerals • 1938, Hitler demanded return of the Sudetenland to the Reich, or German gov’t • Czechoslavakia turns to ally France for help and France seeks guidance from Brit. • Brit. and France say they’ll support “self-determination” (right to choose gov’t) • Hitler frustrated, Sept. 22 he demanded complete annexation and occupation

  13. How Would Your Country Respond? • Unconditional support German demands • Neutral (not supporting either side) • Negotiated w/ Hitler. He can take Sudetenland if he promises to make no more demands on Czech. • Oppose Germany but no threat to declare war on Germany if it attacks Sudetenland • Threaten to declare war on Germany if it tries to take Sudentenland

  14. Britain • You try to talk to Germany – Munich Conference Sept. 28, 1938 • Appeasement (making compromises to an aggressor to keep peace) by letting Germany occupy Sudetenland • Agreement between Germany and Britain, France, Italy (called the Munich Pact) said Germany could occupy Sudetenland if it was their last territorial demand in Europe • (C)

  15. France • Claimed it would defend Czech. if it was attacked by Germany, but in reality, French president doesn’t want fighting • France attends Munich conference too and signed Munich Pact • (C)

  16. Soviet Union • Strictly opposed to extension of German territory, so they didn’t attend Munich Conference • Stalin supported Czech. against German aggression, but didn’t think his army was ready to fight Germany in 1938 • Reluctantly, he decided to not become involved in solving the crisis • (D)

  17. United States • Isolationist foreign policy after WWI • Maintained neutrality toward European problems • (B)

  18. Poland • Supported Germany b/c it wanted the rich, coal-producing region in northern Czech. • For its support, Poland was awarded this northern region by Germany in Sept. 1938 • (A)

  19. Switzerland • Remained neutral • But b/c it was close to both Czech. and Germany, it accelerated its preparedness for war • (B)

  20. Violation of Munich • Munich Conference – Britain, France, Germany, Italy • Britain and France want to strike a deal – appeasement • Germany occupied Sudetenland in Oct., but soon Germany begins to pressure Czech leaders and wants new Czech gov’t that’s sympathetic to Germany • Threatens war • Occupy Czech. and annexes it next day

  21. How do you respond? • Supported Germany’s annexation of Czech. • Declared war on Germany for breaking Munich Pact • Continued appeasement, hoping Germany would finish its territorial aggression • Tried to negotiate with Germany to pull out of Czech. • Neutral • Neutral, but prepared for defensive war in case of invasion

  22. Britain • Didn’t respond, just stood by • (C)

  23. France • Followed Britain’s lead, appeasing Hitler in hopes that Czech. Crisis wouldn’t cause international war • (C)

  24. Soviet Union • Adopted a more friendly stance towards Germany b/c Stalin thought Western countries could do nothing to stop the rise of Nazi Germany • Hoped that good relationship w/ Germany would keep Russia out of European war • (A)

  25. United States • Maintained neutrality • Staying out of conflicts in Europe • (E)

  26. Poland • Too small to stand up to Germany • Forced to accept appeasement policy adopted by allies, Britain and France • (C)

  27. Switzerland • Maintained neutrality • But intensifies defensive measures because of threat of invasion • (F)

  28. Invasion of Poland • After occupation of Czech, Hitler looks towards Polish Corridor, strip of German land given to Poland in 1919 • This strip split Germany into two parts • 1939, Hitler makes demands for territory to be returned to Germany • Fearing aggression, Poland reinforced defense agreements w/France, Brit., USSR • But, Hitler and Stalin shocked the world by signing the Nonaggression Pact (pledging to not attack one another in case of war

  29. Invasion of Poland • Defense agreement between Poland and USSR useless now • Neville Chamberlain, Brit. Prime Minister, formally gives Brit. support to Poland • France promises to attack Germany if they start war in Poland • Sept. 1, 1939, Germany invades Poland

  30. How do you respond? • Neutral • Neutral, but prepared for defensive war in case of invasion • Gave financial aid (money) to Allies (all countries fighting against Germany) • Germany and its allies called Axis Powers D. Joined Germany in its invasion of Poland E. Declared war on Germany and hoped they would retreat from Poland, but did not actually fight F. Declared war on Germany and sent troops to fight the Germans

  31. Britain • Could not help defend Poland militarily • Declares war on Germany, but does not start any fighting w/Germans • (E)

  32. France • Declares war on Germany • Some minor attacks on the French-German border, but for the most part, France does not aid the Poles despite their defense agreement • France begins long process to defend its border w/ Germany • (E)

  33. Soviet Union • Supported German invasion of Poland • Stalin realizes war in Europe inevitable so he signs secret agreements w/ Germany that would divide up Eastern Europe between the two countries • Soviet Union invades Poland in alliance w/ Germany • (D)

  34. United States • With the invasion of Poland, the official beginning of the war, the U.S. announces its neutrality • Pres. Roosevelt says he’ll take all necessary measures except for war to help the Allies • (A)

  35. Poland • Fought for over 3 weeks before surrendering to Germany and Soviet Union • A Polish “gov’t in exile” established in London • (F)

  36. Switzerland • Stays neutral • But it does mobilize 430,000 troops in case it was invaded by Germany • (B)

  37. Invasion of France • After fall of Poland, Germany and Allies didn’t fight for 8 months – the “phony war” • Then, Germany invades Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium in May 1940 (they all surrender) • Germany had already invaded France, but w/ Belgium conquered, its able to have full attention on capturing Paris (if Paris falls, France falls) • French move their gov’t south to prepare

  38. Response to fall of Paris? • Surrender unconditionally to Germany • Surrender on condition that your gov’t retained limited independence and control of some of your territory • Proclaim neutrality • Neutral, but prepare defenses in case war spreads • Fought Germany wherever possible • Supported Germany’s invasion of France

  39. Great Britain • Britain had already evacuated its troops from France b/c of German pressure, so British couldn’t help defend Paris • But Brit. continues to fight Germans elsewhere • Britain left alone after Paris fell, last Allied country not occupied/annexed by Germany

  40. Soviet Union • Supported the invasion but doesn’t participate in it • (F)

  41. United States • Maintained neutrality, but alarmed by success of Germany • When Italy declares war on France and Britain, Pres. Roosevelt announces that the United States would “extend to the opponents of force (the Allies) the material resources of this nation” • (C)

  42. Poland • Had been partitioned by Germany and USSR, but the troops who had been able to escape the country continued to fight Germany elsewhere • (E)

  43. Switzerland • Maintains neutrality, but w/ the fall of France, it was completely surrounded by Axis countries or Axis-occupied lands • Swiss plan to defend only the heartland of their country • (D)

  44. France • Surrendered and signed armistice (cease-fire) w/ Germany on June 22, 1940 • w/ the armistice, Germany had direct control over northern and western 60% of France • French gov’t would keep control of the rest of France, but it was set up as a puppet gov’t collaborating w/ Germans (Vichy Gov’t) • Charles de Gaulle (a French general refuses the Vichy Gov’t and creates Free French Gov’t • He wants to continue fight against Germany

  45. France • Both (B) and (E) are right b/cVichy and the Free French Gov’t had individual responses to events • So now France is divided into two gov’ts

  46. Battle of Britain • When France surrenders in 1940 to Germany, Hitler in control of all W. European countries except Great Britain • Hitler hopes that new PM (Winston Churchill) would surrender, but he doesn’t • Operation Sea Lion, invasion of Britain • Battle of Britain, Luftewaffe (German Air Force) • Has to be preceded by massive air assault to destroy Brit. air defenses (radar stations, air bases)