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Age of Metternich

Age of Metternich

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Age of Metternich

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  1. Age of Metternich Ms. Pugh

  2. Age of Metternich • Dominated by “conservatism” • Wanted Europe to forget about Napoleon, the French Revolution, and the Enlightenment • Wanted to achieve a “balance of power” in Europe • Power between Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and France • Wanted “legitimacy” to return rightful monarchs or their heirs to their thrones • Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolutions in France spread conservative ideas throughout Europe

  3. 1815 Europe

  4. Liberalism • Metternich wanted conservatism • Liberalism was dominant among the commoners who didn’t benefit from noble privilege • Liberalism was defined by freedoms – freedom of speech, religion, and the press • Liberalism stressed constitutional monarchies • Liberalism stressed meritocracy – value in what you achieve, not who you were born to

  5. Utilitarianism • The greatest good for the greatest number. • Normally associated with liberalism – the greatest numbers were non-nobles • Jeremy Bentham – father of • Said government should only interfere in people’s lives to bring order and harmony • John Stuart Mill said the role of the government is to help people achieve happiness • Mill’s On Liberty and On the Subjection of Women outlined utilitarianism and feminism

  6. Nationalism • Hotbeds were in Ottoman Empire and Austrian Empire • Leads to unification of Germany and Italy • Glorified the past and culture of unified groups

  7. England in the Age of Metternich • Rights of commoners actually is expanded • 1815 Parliament only elected by wealthy • 1820s – labor unions legalized • Chartist Movement (People’s Charter) wanted expanded voting rights • 1832 – Great Reform Bill – allowed 50% more people to vote; redrew district boundaries • 1846 – Repeal of the Corn Laws

  8. More on England • In 1866 – Whig party (liberal) Prime Minister William Gladstone attempted to expand voter registration. • In 1867 – Tory Party (Conservative Party) Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. 2nd Reform Bill = gives right to vote to workers.

  9. Back to England • At the turn of the century Great Britain’s laws laid down the foundation of the social welfare state (but first programs started in Germany) • All citizens guaranteed a free public education -- compulsory • Unions were legalized • Secret ballots (Australian) • Government workers insurance • Unemployment insurance • Old age pensions • End of child labor; safety regulations in factories

  10. Magna Carta – King has to follow the law War of the Roses – leads to Parliament supported a new king Henry VIII – religious upheaval – power of the monarch Elizabeth – relied upon Parliament for support James I – absolutist Charles I – English Civil War; Parliament overthrows monarch Charles II returns – at the request of Parliament Glorious Revolution – Parliament invites William and Mary to return Bill of Rights – habeas corpus and freedom of speech Prime Minister gains power during the reign of Queen Victoria Review English Eras

  11. France in the Age of Metternich • Louis XVIII was the king – granted a new constitution • Charles X was a reactionary and make people mad • 1830 – July Revolution – Charles overthrown • Louis Philippe chosen as king of “the French” • Louis had problems with workers – constant uprisings

  12. Back to France • Began the Revolutions of 1848 • July Revolution of 1830 was against Charles X • Louis Phillip replaced Charles and gave a voice to the “bourgeoisie” but no one represented the proletariat (workers) • February, 1848 Louis Phillip abdicates and a new legislature is elected – dominated by conservatives – riots break out between the government and the workers • Universal male suffrage approved and a constitution that set up a one house legislature and had a strong president.

  13. Napoleon Again • Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected president of the Second Republic (1st Republic was during the French Revolution) • Goals: law and order; eradication of socialism and radicalism; adherence to conservative groups: Church, army, property owners and business. • 1852 declares himself Emperor Napoleon III • Internal improvements – highways, canals, railroad construction • Subsidized industry allowed organized unions • Everyone was doing well – • Liberal Empire – eased censorship and granted amnesty to political prisioners

  14. Mexican Empire • Napoleon sets up an “Emperor of Mexico” – a Hapsburg cousin who was to answer to Napoleon – the Mexicans kill him and the United States is outraged at the violation of the Monroe Doctrine

  15. Crimean War (1854-1856) • French and English went to war to prevent the Russians from establishing dominance over Ottoman possessions • Ended the peace set up after the Congress of Vienna

  16. Franco-Prussian War (1870) • Was the last war of Prussian/German unification • Napoleon surrendered rather than let the Prussian army invade Paris; Napoleon is taken captive and France declares the Third Republic

  17. Third Republic • Controlled by monarchists and the bourgeoisie • Counter radical government was set up – Paris Commune (where have we heard of this before?) • 1875 – Chamber of Deputies – set up – foundation of French government until WWII when so many parties kept leading to its downfall • 1894 – Dreyfus Affair embarrassed France; Dreyfus was a Jewish military officer who was convicted of espionage; Emile Zola was a writer who “broke” the story that there was no evidence – anti-Semitism led to arrest and conviction

  18. War of the Three Henrys Religious toleration Bourbons vs. Hapsburgs Age of Absolutism Louis XIV – Sun King Wars of Louis XIV Bourbons expand into Spain Great Debt Enlightenment Radical ideas that change the world Participate in American Revolution Revolution Starts off as moderate – wanted a Constitutional monarchy Becomes radical – Reign of Terror Paris mainly radical Wars with others Napoleon Military hero Spread enlightenment ideas across Europe – not always enlightened himself Monarchy Part II Louis XVIII – constitution that benefited bourgeois and nobles Charles X – wanted to return to absolute power – abdicates in face of rebellion Louis Phillip – citizen king; benefits bourgeoisie but not workers Workers rebel Second Republic Voting rights to men Napoleon III Same as uncle – pretty enlightened, but wants total power Loses for military reasons (sound familiar) Third Republic Sets up a true democracy Let’s Review Major French Eras

  19. Russia in the Age of Metternich • Alexander I was the Tzar • Younger people had been influenced by Enlightenment – students • Nicholas I became Tzar in 1825 • Decembrist Revolt -- young army officers wanted a constitutional monarchy • Many were executed • Nicholas became very reactionary and repressive • Created the Third Section – secret police • Nicholas put down revolts in Poland but aided revolutionaries in Greece (why?)

  20. Russia • Alexander I extended the reforms of Catherine the Great • Freedom of Jews in empire • When Napoleon invaded Alexander ordered statewide censorship and required membership in the Eastern Orthodox Church. • Nicholas I takes over when Alexander dies – Decembrist Revolt was led by military soldiers. Created Third Section. • Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality

  21. Russia • Alexander II began as a reformer and ended as a reactionary. • Emancipated the serfs in 1861, but required them to pay for their freedom. • Polish Revolt led to autocracy – killed by militants called Narodniks who were socialists. (1866) • Industrialization had taken place under Alexander and a Trans-Siberian Railroad was important in Russia’s economic development.

  22. German States • The Holy Roman Empire was ended by Napoleon. • Remember various princes controlled German states and the Hapsburgs controlled Austria. • The Congress of Vienna set up the Germanic Confederation to deal with similar German state problems. • Burschenschafts were radical student organizations who wanted a unified German state led by a constitution. They organized national conventions. • Carlsbad Decrees outlawed the Buschenschafts, censored materials that advocated unification, and set up secret police in universities (started by Metternich).

  23. Prussia • Zollverein – was an economic union of German states. Economic unity… • Prussia (Frederick William IV) dealt quickly with revolutionary activity by calling a legislative assembly rather than the military (why was this a good idea?). • 1850 Prussia set up a constitution that established a House of Representatives elected by universal male suffrage.

  24. Frankfurt Assembly • Met outside the “legal” authority of Prussia. • Set up a plan for future union of Germany. • Greater Germany wanted German and Austrian unification. • Lesser Germany wanted to exclude Austria. • Offered the crown of “Germany” to Frederick William IV – he declined. • Advisor Bismarck said if someone gives you something it can be taken away – take it through “blood and iron.”

  25. Austria • Ethnic mix of Austria included Germans, Hungarians, Slavs, Czechs, Italians, Serbs, Croats, and others. • Led to Revolutions of 1848. • Louis Kossuth – Hungarian nationalist aroused separatist sentiments. • Rioting in Vienna led to Metternich having to flee Austria. • Prague Conference was called by the Czechs (like the Frankfurt Conference) wanted Austroslavism where the slavs would had some autonomy from the Austrians (but remain in the empire). • Those who tried to rebel were suppressed by the Hapsburgs.

  26. Franz Joseph (1848-1916) • Very conservative • Suppressed all opposition • Saw the Revolutions of 1848 collapse because of ethnic conflicts – not a bad thing for him!

  27. Liberalism Redefined • Liberalism started as laissez-faire economics, freedom of speech, press, and religion • Beginning of 20th century – expanded suffrage and improve living conditions for all citizens • Unions were legalized • Government education for all • End of child labor • Pensions for the elderly • Medical insurance for all • Universal suffrage achieved

  28. German Unification • The Zollverein set up the foundations of a unified economic state. Political unification wasn’t far off. • Prussian Hohenzollerns looked to be the leading contenders for created a German empire. • Austrian Hapsburgs were not so sure.

  29. German States

  30. Bismarck’s Realpolitik • Otto von Bismarck was a Junker (landowning noble) who was willing to battle Parliament • Collected taxes without the approval of Parliament, enlarged the army, and killed democracy in Prussia. • Unified Germany through war and power: • Danish-Prussian War – all-German war against Denmark over Denmark’s desire for Schleswig – Denmark defeated by Germans, included Austria

  31. Austro-Prussian War (7 Weeks War) of 1866 • Prussia was superior in arms, training, and leadership • Austria chose not to interfere with Bismarck’s plans anymore

  32. North German Confederation • 1867 the North German Confederation was established to replace the German Confederation • 21 States united under Prussia • 2 House Legislature – Reichstag (lower house) and Bundesrat (upper house)

  33. Franco-Prussian War • Technically a disagreement over the Spanish throne – series of diplomatic correspondents between Prussia and France • EMS Dispatch was reworded to sound like Napoleon III was insulted William I • Napoleon III declared war on Prussia in July of 1870. • In four months, the Prussian army had defeated the French and taken Napoleon prisoner. • France lost Alsace-Lorraine. • Baden, Bavaria, Hesse, and Wurttemberg – joined the Confederation and King William became the Keiser of all the Germans (except Austria)

  34. Bismarck as Chancellor • Kulturkampf (cultural conflicts) repressed Catholics and socialists in the German states. • To counter appeal of the socialists, Bismarck sponsored some “reforms” of his own – the first in Europe: • Workman’s Compensation • Old-age pensions • Medical assistance

  35. Unification of Italy • Italy had unified somewhat since the Italian City-States of the 15th and 16th centuries. • Kingdom of Naples (Two Sicilies) was made up of Sicily and the southern part of Italy. • The Papal States included Rome and the middle of Italy. • Lombardy-Venetia was the northern part of Italy and was ruled by Austria (Tuscany, Lucca, Modena, and Parma). • Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont-Sardinia) included the northwestern provinces of Nice, Savoy, and Piedmont.

  36. Italy

  37. Sardinia • Was ruled by a constitutional monarchy led by Victor Emmanuel II. • Camillo di Cavour became prime minister during the Revolutions of 1848. • Rejected the idea of a “family” destined to be united by divine intervention (idea of Mazzini) and decided that Italy had to be united by force. • Cavour reformed Sardinia by weakening the power of the papacy, investing in public works (railroads and harbors), abolishing internal tariffs (another economic unification), encouraging industry, emancipating the peasants tied to land, and highlighting “constitutional” powers.

  38. Unification • Cavour got Napoleon III to support a Sardinia war against Austria. France would get Nice and Savoy in exchange. • 1859 Austria declared war on Sardinia and the French fought for Cavour. (Napoleon left early to deal with Prussia). • Garibaldi took over the military forces and his Red Shirts. • March, 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emmanuel II as the ruler. • 1870 the Papal states (excluding Vatican) were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy.