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The Brain and Cranial Nerves

The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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  1. The Brain and Cranial Nerves Ch. 19

  2. Major Brain Subdivisions • Cerebrum • Diencephalon • Hypothalamus and Thalamus • Brain Stem • Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata • Cerebellum

  3. Cerebrum • Processes: • motor control, thoughts, judgment, problem solving, memory, and language • Left & Right Hemispheres • longitudinal fissure separates hemispheres • Gyri: elevated ridges • Sulci: shallow grooves • Fissures: deeper grooves

  4. Cerebrum • Corpus callosum: • Bundle of axon fibers that enables communication between the hemispheres • Cerebral cortex: outermost area of brain • cell bodies of cerebral neurons (gray matter) • White matter: • Made of fiber tracks carrying impulses to or from the cortex

  5. Diencephalon Consists of: • Thalamus • Translates information for interpretation by cerebral cortex • Hypothalamus • Translates electrical signals into hormones

  6. Brain Stem Consists of: • Midbrain • connects the pons below with the cerebrum above • Pons • means bridge • motor and sensory fiber tracts connecting or bridging the brain to the lower CNS • Medulla oblongata • lowest brain stem region. It is composed mainly of fiber tracts

  7. Cerebellum • Function: • Coordination and integration of sensory input and motor control (controls balance and equilibrium)

  8. Meninges • Brain and Spinal cord are protected by 3 connective tissue membranes • Dura Mater • Arachnoid Mater • Pia Mater

  9. Cerebral Spinal Fluid • Fluid • inside the brain found in ventricles • Outside the brain is found in arachnoid layer • Prevent brain from collapsing in on itself • Shock absorption

  10. Cranial Nerves • Twelve pairs of cranial nerves arise from the brain • They have sensory, motor, or both sensory and motor functions • Each nerve is identified by a number (I through XII) and a name

  11. Functions of Nerves • Olfactory- sense of smell • Optic - vision • Oculomotor Nerve - movement of eyelid and eyeball, constriction of pupil and accommodation of lens for near vision • Trochler Nerve - movement of eyeball • Trigeminal - chewing (motor) and sensory • Abducens Nerve - lateral movement of eyeball • Facial Nerve - Facial expression, taste, tears • Vestibulocochlear Nerve - hearing, equilibrium • Glossopharyngeal Nerve- taste, swallowing, speech • Vagus Nerve - taste, swallowing, talking • Accessory Nerve - swallowing, SCM, trapezius muscles (neck muscles) • Hypoglossal Nerve - tongue movement Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter Most

  12. Mnemonics for Cranial Nerves     1) On occasion our trusty truck acts funny --very good vehicle anyhow     2) Oh oh oh to touch and feel very green vegetables ah

  13. Summary of Function of Cranial Nerves Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter Most Figure 13.5b