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classical period

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    1. Dr. Battersby 1 Classical Period 1750-1820

    2. Dr. Battersby 2 Classical Era The term classical is confusing because of its different meanings: A) It may refer to the arts of Greek and Roman antiquity B) supreme accomplishment or lasting appeal Anything that is not rock, jazz, rap or folk, etc.

    3. Dr. Battersby 3 Age of Enlightenment Philosophers and writers believed in progress, believing that reason, not custom or tradition was the best guide for human conduct. Their attacks on the privileges of the aristocracy and clergy reflected the outlook of the middle class, which were struggling for their rights. This 70 year period was marked by violent political and social upheaval and included the Seven Years War, the American and French Revolutions, and the Napoleonic Wars. Political and economic power shifted from the aristocracy and church to the middle class.

    4. Dr. Battersby 4 Transition The time period between the baroque and the classical was known as the pre-classical period (1730-1770). Bachs sons were pioneers in this new style The master composers of the era were Haydn, Mozart, and the young Beethovenand this style is referred to as Viennese since all three composers lived in, worked in, and drew inspiration from the spirit and culture of 18th century Vienna.

    5. Dr. Battersby 5 Inside the Castle Aristocracy settled into a predictable life of manners, morals, and music Outside the wallsthe people began rising in revolt because they wanted control of their own destinies. Concerts: Servants delivered ornate invitations. Guests arrived in the afternoon for drinks, and then retired to guest rooms to nap. After the nap they changed clothes and strolled into the music room where they talked or dozed. After the concert they went to the ball and danced for hours.

    6. Dr. Battersby 6 Music Overview By the middle of the century, even the middle-class families usually had a harpsichord and other musical instrument in their homes The piano was introduced around 1711 and became more and more popular. Composers augmented their meager incomes by offering music lessons, and important books of music instruction were printed. Simple music for amateurs to play was composed and owners were programmed to include music that would please the eager, but inexperienced audience. Women became more involved in the art of music making in the home. They took lessons and practiced quite a bit in order to entertain their families, suitors, and friends.

    7. Dr. Battersby 7 Characteristics Contrast of Mood: Baroque compositions usually conveyed a single emotionclassical pieces fluctuated in mood, either gradually or suddenly and there was great contrast. Rhythm: flexibility and lots of rhythmic patterns, unexpected pauses, and syncopationand not the perpetual motion of the baroque. Texture: basically homophonicand it became the predominant texture. Melodies were generally placed in the top line, and the bass which supported the harmonies above, had less melodic interested than in the music of the baroque. There is also a shift in and out of textures.

    8. Dr. Battersby 8 Characteristics Melody: Easy to remember and are the most tuneful. The themes of even the highly sophisticated compositions may have a folk or popular flavor. They usually sound balanced and symmetrical because they are frequently made up of two phrases of the same length. Dynamics: The range of dynamic levels increased in the latter part of the 18th century. Crescendos were longer and more expressive and gradualnot terraced like the baroque.

    9. Dr. Battersby 9 Characteristics Timbre: Instrumental music clearly dominated during the Classical period. Orchestral music was particularly important. The piano, capable of achieving expressive dynamic effects, replaced the harpsichord as the primary keyboard instrumentbut not until 1775. End of the basso continuo: amateurs started playing music and they werent skilled enough to master the art of improvising from a figured bass. It was gradually abandoned during this time and became obsolete. Classical musicians wanted more control and they preferred to specify an accompaniment.

    10. Dr. Battersby 10 New Classical Orchestra Larger with a standard group of four sections. Instruments came into their own, and they were featured, and not used for doubling. The string section usually had the melody. Strings: 1st and 2nd violins; violas, cellos, basses. Winds: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons Brass: 2 French Horns, 2 trumpets Percussion: 2 timpani

    11. Dr. Battersby 11 Classical Forms Classicists found beauty in order and symmetry of design, and their music is clearly organized according to old and new principles of musical form. Symphony large scale work for orchestra Symphonies and String Quartets (Usually follow this 4-movement pattern) 1.) Fast movement 2.) Slow movement 3.) Dance-related movement 4.) Fast movement

    12. Dr. Battersby 12 Classical Forms String Quartet: composition written for 2 violins (1st and 2nd), 1 viola,1 cello Classical sonata: written for one or two instruments. (piano or piano and violin, for example)

    13. Dr. Battersby 13 Three of the Worlds Greatest Composers Haydn (1732-1809) spent most of his life serving a wealthy aristocratic family (Prince Esterhazy). He was considered a skilled servantlike a gardener or gamekeeper and had to refrain from vulgarity in eating, drinking, and conversation. Mozart (1756-1791) couldnt bear being treated like a servant and broke away from his court position and went to Vienna to try his luck as a freelance musician. He was very successful for several years but his popularity declined and he died in debt. Beethoven (1770-1827) fared better than both Haydn and Mozart. He was able to work as an independent musician in Viennaonly a few years after Mozarts death. His success was gained through a wider middle-class market for music and a commanding personality that prompted the nobility to give him gifts and treat him as an equal. He played for Mozart as a 16 year old, and studied with Haydn when he was 22.

    14. Dr. Battersby 14 Sonata Form Sonata Form - (refers to the form of a single movement) Motives are short musical ideas Sonata formnot the term sonata, which is used for a whole composition made up of several movements. This form is found in the opening of a first movement of a classical symphony, sonata, or string quartet. More often than not the opening movement is in sonata form.

    15. Dr. Battersby 15 Sonata Form Three main parts: Exposition: theme stated (exposition means a detailed statement or explanation) Development: theme treated in new ways Recapitulation: themes return [brings resolution] (review or summary) Coda: Concluding Sections (It. for tail, ending on tonic) (conclusion) #1-Mozart-Symphony No.40 in G Minor, K550 (P. 166) First Movement

    16. Dr. Battersby 16 Theme and Variations Widely used in the classical period, either as an independent piece or as one movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet. The basic musical ideathe themeis repeated over and over and is changed each time. Each variation is usually about the same length as the themeand may differ in mood from the theme. #2-Haydn: Symphony No. 94 in G Major, 2nd Movement (P. 168)

    17. Dr. Battersby 17 Minuet and Trio Often used as the third movement of classical symphonies, string quartets and other works. Originated as a dance (first appeared at the court of Louis XIV of France) around 1650 and was danced by aristocrats. It was stately and dignified whereby couples exchanged bows and curtsies. The minuet movement of a symphony is meant for listening. Triple meter, moderate tempo. ABA form (Minuet (A) Trio (B) Minuet (A)

    18. Dr. Battersby 18 Serenade Is light in mood and meant for evening entertainment. Written for small string orchestra or for a string quartet plus a double bass that plays the cello part an octave lower. The third movement is a courtly minuet in ABA form #3-Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik ( A Little Night Music), K525. Third Movement (P. 171)

    19. Dr. Battersby 19 Rondo Has a main theme A which alternates with other themes. In our example the A theme is in the style of a gypsy dance (in minor) Theme B is lyrical in melody Theme C is quick and playful and when theme A returns it has a faster tempo and leads to a frenzied concluding section. Listening Outline: ABACABA #4 Rondo: Beethoven, String Quartet in C Minor, Op. 18, No. 4 (Fourth Movement)

    20. Dr. Battersby 20 Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Born in Austria. He served as a choirboy in Vienna and when his voice changed, he was dismissed with no money. Eventually aristocrats recognized his talent when at age 29 he entered the service of the Esterhazy (the richest and most powerful of the Hungarian noble families) He composed music for them for nearly 30 years in the palace which contained an opera house, a theater, two concert halls and 126 guest rooms. Haydn was a highly skilled servant who was required to compose all music desired by his patron, in addition to conducting the orchestra, coaching singers, and overseeing the instruments and music library.

    21. Dr. Battersby 21 Haydn He held the post of Kapellmeister (the Kapell being the princes chapel), which involved managing and writing music not only for the princes chapel but also for his private opera house, his marionette theater, and for palace chamber music and orchestral performances. He was a good administrator who hired his own musicians in order to experiment with the symphony and other genres in order to develop his style under ideal conditions. His music became immensely popular all over Europe. He went to London in 1791-92 and again in 1794-95 and reports indicated that his appearances were triumphs.

    22. Dr. Battersby 22 Haydn He was a pioneer in the development of the symphony and the string quartet. Both Mozart and Beethoven were influenced by his style. He was a master at developing themes. Some scholars believe that Haydn invented the string quartet form. He wrote masses, oratorios, string quartets, symphonies, piano sonatas, divertimentos, concertos, and operas.

    23. Dr. Battersby 23 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Born in Austria.(2006 marks the 250th anniversary of his birth.) Amazing child prodigy. Wrote his first symphony at age 8 and his first opera at age 12. Toured the palaces from the ages of 6-15, shown off by his father. He played for aristocrats. When he returned to Salzburg at age 15 the archbishop, a tyrant who ruled Salzburg at the time, would not grant him anything above a subordinate seat in the court orchestra. Mozart spent 10 years with the help of his father to find another position anywhere else.

    24. Dr. Battersby 24 Mozart At age 25 he couldnt take it anymore, broke free from Salzsburg, and became a free-lance musician in Vienna. He was very successful for the first few years. His concerts were attended by royalty, his compositions were published, and pupils paid him high feeshe also formed a friendship with Haydn. His popularity declined after Don Giovanni, which was not received very well in Viennaand it was downhill from this point on. After 1787 his life was a struggle but he did receive a minor court appointment and the promise of a church positionand then finally he scored a hit with the Magic Flute and he became successful again during the last year of his lifehe received a commission for a comic opera The Magic Flute. Requiem (Mass for the dead)

    25. Dr. Battersby 25 Mozart Mozart was a versatile composer and wrote masterpieces in all forms of his timesymphonies, concertos, chamber music, operas etc. Many of his concertos are his greatest works. He was a great pianist. He was a master of opera because he had a keen sense of theater. Most of his operas are comedies composed to German or Italian librettos #5: Mozart -Opera - Don Giovanni Act I (Italian) Page 183

    26. Dr. Battersby 26 Classical Symphonies Classical Symphony: The greatest contribution to the classical period. Haydn- wrote at least 104, wrote them mostly for his employers Mozart- wrote over 40 Beethoven-wrote only nine. Beethoven wrote a symphony only when inspired. Beethovens symphonies are longer than both Mozarts and Haydns and were conceived for performance in the large concert hall.

    27. Dr. Battersby 27 Classical Concerto This is a three-movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra. It combines the soloists virtuosity and interpretive abilities with the orchestras wide range of tone color and dynamics. Soloist and orchestra are equally important in keeping with the classical love of balance. Mozart and Beethoven were the greatest masters of the classical concertoand often wrote concertos for themselves to play as piano soloists; and the piano is their favored solo instrument. There were other solo instruments including the violin, cello, horn bassoon trumpet, clarinet, and cello.

    28. Dr. Battersby 28 Classical Concerto They can last anywhere from 20-45 minuets like a symphony. There are three movements: (1) fast (2) slow (3) fast. Has no minuet or scherzo. In the first movement or the last movement, there is a special unaccompanied showpiece for the soloists, the cadenza (Italian for cadence). The soloist then displays virtuosity by playing dazzling scale passages etc. without the orchestra. In the classical era the soloists was often the composer and generally improvised the cadenza. #6: Mozart Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major, K. 488 First Movement (P. 191)

    29. Dr. Battersby 29 Ludwig van Beethoven: (1770-1820) Born in Bonn, Germany His father (a minor musician at the court of Bonn) tried unsuccessfully to promote him as an infant prodigy like Mozart. Although considered a slow developer, by the age of 22 he was acclaimed as a powerful virtuoso pianist, playing his own compositions at the palaces for the music-loving aristocracy in Viennawhere he remained until his death. He became progressively deaf after the age of 30. He overcame his depression, turned to composition and in 1803 wrote the first of his powerful and individual symphonies the Eroica (Third). He was probably the first musician to make a living/career solely from composing, and he was regarded as a genius and eccentric during his lifetime.

    30. Dr. Battersby 30 Beethoven He represents the highest level of musical genius. He profoundly influenced composers throughout the 19th C. By age 11 he was serving as assistant to the court organist, and at age 12 had several compositions published. Before his 29th birthday, he left Bonn to study with Haydn in Vienna, where he spent the rest of his life. Vienna was taken with his virtuosity and his ability to improvise.

    31. Dr. Battersby 31 Beethoven He rebelled against social convention asserting that the artist deserved as much respect as the nobilityand the same aristocrats who had allowed Mozart to die in debt (20 years before) showered Beethoven in gifts. In 1809, three noblemen committed to him an annual income, only if he were to stay in Vienna. Unlike earlier composers, Beethoven was never actually in the service of the Viennese aristocracy. He earned good fees from piano lessons and concerts and publishers were quick to buy his compositions. He first felt the symptoms of deafness at age 29. Even when he went deaf, he insisted on conducting although he could no longer perform (playing the piano) in public.

    32. Dr. Battersby 32 Beethoven He was the musical heir of Haydn and Mozart and he. Many of his innovations were used by later composers. He used a great range of pitch and dynamics greater than ever before. Contrast in mood is more bridged the gap between the classical and romantic eras pronouncedaccents and climaxes are on a greater scale. Was a musical architect who greatly expanded forms and made them more dramatic. His most popular works were his nine symphonies and he took the unprecedented step of using a chorus and 4 vocal soloists, who sing the text to Schillers Ode to Joy in the last movement of his ninth symphony.

    33. Dr. Battersby 33 Beethoven His 32 piano sonatas are far more difficult than those of Haydn or Mozart and he drew many new effects from the piano of his time. His string quartets are considered to be the greatest music ever composed His piano concerti are very individual and it is said that he premiered each of the five. His works is usually divided into three periods: early (up to 1802), middle (1803-1814) and late (1815-1827). Earlier works show the influence of Haydn and Mozart but the rest show his own personal style. #7: Piano Sonatas in C Minor, Op. 13 (Pathetique) (page 198) #8: Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (page 201)