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Classical Period

Classical Period

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Classical Period

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  1. Classical Period 1000 BCE- 600 CE

  2. Differences of Classical Civilizations from Early River Valleys • Size and political strength • Larger land areas meant need for larger governments and stronger militaries • More complex cultures • Great religions emerged: Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity & Confucianism philosophy • Many civilizations produced art and literature considered classics today

  3. Differences of Classical Civilizations from Early River Valleys • More numerous and better written records • More knowledge gained about classical civilizations because of better record keeping • All civilizations had writing and some developed alphabets • More complex long-distance trade • Great trade routes developed: Silk road trade and Indian Ocean trade • Trade systems increased prosperity, introduced new material goods, & spread ideas

  4. Differences of Classical Civilizations from Early River Valleys • More contact between nomads and sedentary people • Urban areas came in contact with areas on the periphery • Central Asian nomads took over transport of goods across the vast plains (settled into some areas, as well) • Attacks of nomads on civilization centers grew

  5. Differences of Classical Civilizations from Early River Valleys • More direct influence on modern civilizations • Many modern beliefs and practices are traceable to Classical Period (more than to early river valleys) • Modern law codes are similar to Roman law, not Hammurabi’s Code • Religious beliefs of Classical Period are in practice today

  6. Important to Know • Focus here is on Classical Civilizations,but most of earth occupied at this time was by nomadic or migratory people • Two alternatives to sedentary agriculture • Shifting cultivation or “slash & burn” agriculture • Pastoral nomadism

  7. Shifting cultivation or “slash & burn” agriculture • Predominated in rainforests of Central & South America, west Africa, east & central India, southeast Asia, and south Asia • Rainforest undergrowth is burned, but large trees are left to protect soil • Ash from burn is used to fertilize crops • Once nutrients from soil are depleted and new area is burned

  8. Slash & burn agriculture

  9. Pastoral Nomadism • Practice continued from earlier days across plains of central Europe, central Arabian Peninsula, and areas south of Saharan Desert • Animals of pastoralist were domesticated • Pastoralist sought good pastures • Animals included horses, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and reindeer • During Classical Period trade routes were controlled by pastoralist across central Asia • Some settled into sedentary lives on Silk Road trading centers

  10. Pastoral Nomadism

  11. Classical Civilizations in three areas • The Mediterranean • Greeks followed by Romans • The Indian subcontinent • Mauryan Empire • Gupta Empire • East Asia • Warring States period following Zhou to Qin Dynasty • Han Dynasty

  12. Geography Interlude • C:\Users\Owner\Desktop\APHG Videos\Why we need to teach

  13. Mediterranean: Greece • Settled agriculture had developed along Aegean Sea by about 2000 BCE • First on the island of Crete • Greece geography • Mountainous with little land for farming & no major rivers • Advantageous was excellent and plenteous natural harbors & calm sea (Greeks became good sailors)

  14. Mediterranean: Greece • From fall of Mycenae (1100 BCE) until about 800 BCE Greeks were isolated • Phoenicians ended this isolation and generated trade with Greeks • Greek ships began traveling across the Mediterranean

  15. Phoenicians

  16. Important Marker EventPhoenician Alphabet • Phoenicians 1200 BCE to 300 BCE • Civilization grew up in modern-day Lebanon • They were great maritime sailors • Developed the Phoenician alphabet • First non-pictographic consonantal alphabet or a phonetic alphabet • This alphabet became basis for many modern languages

  17. Phoenician AlphabetMarker Event • System of 22 written marks (letters) corresponding to sounds • Much simpler than any alphabet of the day • Greeks built on this by adding signs for vowels

  18. Greece Political Development • Primary political form in Greece was the polis or city-state • City-states were independent political and cultural units with their own government • Some cases there were leagues tying city-states together loosely, but never a central government • Primary city-states were Athens & Sparta • At its height Greece had over 200 poleis

  19. Developmental Forms of Governmentin Ancient Greek Poleis • Monarchies • Hereditary rule by one • Oligarchies • Rule by a few • Aristocracies • Rule by leading families • Democracies • New form of popular government

  20. Early Athens • Athens went through all the forms of government listed previously • Cleisthenes, an aristocrat, experimented with democracy • Heart of democracy was the town meeting • Had to be a free male to participate • Athens also had “Council of 500” • Citizens chosen for one-year terms • Important to note democracies consisted of only free males: women & slaves no political power

  21. Early Sparta • In early 700’s Spartans defeated neighboring city-state of Messenia • Captured their people & used them for agricultural labor (called helots) • During 600’s Messenians kept rebelling and Spartan men trained for military superiority over them • Helots met societies economic needs • This set course for a society built around military dominance

  22. Ways to look at societies • Social • Political • Inter action between people and environment • Cultural & Intellectual • Economic • Create a SPICE charts to classify and compare societies and civilizations

  23. Economic Characteristics of Greece • Greek topography included mountainous region not suited to agricultural production • Grew barley that was hardier than wheat on its plains • Grew olive trees on edge of plains & grapevines on lower slopes of hillsides • Raised sheep & goats in most areas and horses in northern Greece

  24. Economic Characteristics of Greece • Natural resources included building stones such as marble, clay for pottery, but few metal deposits • Relied on maritime trade for a lot of their goods: timber, gold, iron, copper, tin, & grain • Farmers had to also be ready to serve in army • Greek farmer soldiers were called hoplites • Greek formed colonies around the Aegean and eventually all the way to southern France

  25. Greek colonies 550 BCE

  26. Social Distinctions in Classical Greece • Big social distinction in Classical Greece city-states is between citizens and non-citizens Spartan & Helot Athenian citizens—free males

  27. Sparta & Social Distinctions • Any distinction in Spartan life were made by military and physical prowess • Boys removed from home and joined the military at age seven • Spartans thought luxuries were harmful to their purity • Spartan values were based on the military

  28. Sparta & Social Distinctions • Helots outnumbered citizens 10 to 1 • Helots controlled by Spartan military males • All Spartan citizens were theoretically equal in status • All wore simple clothing & no jewelry • Houses equally unadorned • Life was lived very frugally & austere

  29. Athens & Social Distinctions • Basic distinction in Athenian society between citizens and non-citizens was important • Athenians did enjoy luxuries and developed an urban-based aristocracy • Most Athenians were farmers outside of the city, but in the urban area the distinctions stood out • Democracy was essentially for free males • Athens had a slave population of almost 30%

  30. Athens & Sparta Gender Distinctions • Spartan women were free and equal with males • Physical fitness encourage in women (healthy bodies for healthy children) • Spartan men away at war, so women ran the economy • Athenian women confined to home & ventured outside only when escorted by servants or slaves • One or two rooms reserved for women away from street • Rural women had more freedom • Athenian women had no political rights, nor could they own property or businesses (they were citizens)

  31. Cultural Characteristics Classical Greece • Greeks were polytheistic • Main god Zeus & his wife Hera • Poseidon, god of seas • Athena, goddess of wisdom and war • Apollo, god of Sun

  32. Cultural Characteristics Classical Greece • Greeks did not take their gods that seriously • They had an emphasis on secularism • What’s that? • Secularism: centered on the affairs of the world • Secular refers to the opposite of religious • Secular violence: not with respect to religious conflict

  33. Cultural Characteristics Classical Greece • Greeks believed in natural law or the sense that forces in nature caused phenomena to occur • Famous philosophers stating concepts of natural law • Socrates, focusing on ethical questions of life • Plato, a concept of perfect forms & philosopher kings • Aristotle, focus on explanations of nature through scientific discovery

  34. Cultural Characteristics Classical Greece • Classical Greeks concentrated on three major art forms: • Drama: centered on myths about gods & their intervention in human affairs • Lyric poetry: style of poetry that has musical quality and centers on personal feelings • “Classical” architecture: Greek temples • Parthenon atop the Acropolis (hill) in Athens • Copied by Romans

  35. Cultural Characteristics Classical Greece • Greek sculpture reflects ideas of worth of individual • Celebration of the human form • Achievements of Greeks during Classical Age (c. 500-300 BCE) is termed Hellenic culture • Based on Greek name for their homeland, Hellas

  36. Rise of Persia • Ancient Persia rose in the area of modern-day Iran

  37. Rise of Persia • Traders had come across this area from southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent • First warrior King was Cyrus the Great • Particularly important is decree of Cyrus the Great to free the Jews from Bagdad • He is mentioned 23 times in the Jewish Bible • Allowed Jews to go back to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple after Babylonian conquest • Daniel was favored by Cyrus

  38. Rise of Persia • In the Persian court these governors were called satraps • They collected tribute (precious metals) • They provided soldiers to keep control • Persian King was referred to as : • “the Great King, King of Kings, King in Persia, King of countries” • Satraps mimicked this role of Persian King in their provinces

  39. Rise of Persia • Following Cyrus the Great were a succession of rulers—most important Darius I • Empire went into Egypt and into northern Greece-(Macedonia) • Political system setup by Cyrus I is to be noted • Successful idea if you intend to conquer and have a lasting empire • Allow your subjects to practice their own customs and laws under your governors

  40. Greeks vs. Persians • Most knowledge of Persians comes from Greeks who faced them in battle in 5th century BCE • Would this be accurate information (POV) • Most famous battle in Greek Persian history is Battle of Marathon • See video of this • Another noteworthy defeat of Persia by Greeks is Battle of Thermopylae • Did West (Greece) vs. East (Persia) begin in these battles? (CCOT)

  41. Hellenistic Synthesis(Blending of Greek ideals with established cultures) • King Philip of Macedonia (immediately north of Greece) [359-336 BCE] defeated Greek city-states one by one • Philip was assassinated in 336 BCE and his son Alexander (20 years old) took over • 13 years later Alexander had conquered most of known world at that time • Egypt, Syria, Persia, & all the way to Indus Valley in India • Spread of Greek ideals after Alexander’s conquest is called Hellenistic Age (323-30 BCE) • He was student of Aristotle

  42. Conquests of Alexander the Great

  43. Mediterranean Civilizations: Rome • Rome was heavily influenced by the Greeks, but did develop its own unique character • Migratory group called Etruscan’s came into Rome around 800 BCE (don’t know from where) • Dominated area city-states • One of its dominated areas was Rome • Rome gained its independence from Etruscan rule in 509 BCE & established a republic • Republic (state without a monarch—representative rule)

  44. Mediterranean Civilizations: Rome • Roman Republic • Run by a Senate compose of patricians (aristocrats) • What is an aristocracy? • Aristocrats: a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, esp. the hereditary nobility • Republic had both a Senate and General Assembly • Not democratic, however, as plebeians (commoners) composed General Assembly and had little power • Plebeians represented 90% of population

  45. Mediterranean Civilizations: Rome • Senates power challenged by Julius Caesar • Charismatic patrician & control of soldiers • Formed a Triumvirate (rule of three) • Declared himself to be dictator • Was assassinated by Senators on Ides of March—March 15, 44 BCE • Fight for power by his nephew Octavian and a general Mark Antony • Octavian defeated Antony in 31 BCE & Senate declared him Augustus (revered one) • Start of Roman Empire

  46. Who was Cleopatra? • Cleopatra VII was last queen of Egypt • Direct descendant of Alexander Great’s general Ptolemy • Cleopatra had a son with Julius Caesar & wanted him as heir to him • After Julius Caesar's assassination she sided with Mark Antony (bad move) • Had children with him • Octavian defeated Mark Antony & Cleopatra committed suicide: had snake bite her • Events of this written by Roman scholar 130 years after this happened

  47. Cleopatra Notice hairstyle Analyze this picture

  48. Augustus Reforms & the “Pax Romana” • Augustus a clever politician and effective ruler • Preferred to be called “princeps” or first citizen • In his 40-year rule overhauled military, economy, & government • His reforms lasted for 250 years & created “Pax Romana” or Roman Peace • Codified Roman Law, used army as engineering force to build roads & public works, created effective navy • Roman Empire lasted until 476 CE

  49. Economic & Social Distinctions • Roman economy primarily agricultural with hierarchal system of operation • Aristocrats (patricians) controlled large plots of land • Oldest living male, “paterfamilias” had complete authority over family • Patrons (men of wealth) had clients (subordinates) • Patrons were usually Senators who had great political power • Clients served patrons with military service, labor, & political support • A client might be a patron himself to a lesser group

  50. Economic & Social Distinctions • Roman citizenship, therefore, through Patron-client relationships had a lot of inequality • Tensions existed throughout Roman Empire with this system of inequality