Classical Period 1750-1825
Sonata Cycle • Four movement plan common in symphonies, sonatas, and other works of the Classical period - FSDF
Sammartini Symphony • First Movement • An immature version of Sonata Allegro Form • Exposition is repeated, and has two themes, but they are very short • Development and Recapitulation are repeated (not typical later on)
Sammartini Symphony • First Movement • Classical characteristics? • Frequent pauses • Changes of themes • Crescendo/decrescendo • Binary form brings back the original theme in original key
Sonata Cycle • Fast - most sophisticated movement - more sections - twists and turns. • Slow - usually a Theme and Variations, or ABA form. Easier to listen to and follow. • Dance-like - triple meter Minuet and Trio form. Even easier to listen to. • Fast - often Rondo - easiest of all to listen to.
Sonata Cycle • Four movement plan common in symphonies, sonatas, and other works of the Classical period - FSDF • Philosophy - Hit the listener with the hardest material first while their brain is still fresh!!!
Sonata-Allegro Form • Also acceptable to call it just Sonata form - See the book on pp 125-131 for a description and diagram
Sonata Allegro Form • - The form (formula) that you will find for the first movement of EVERY work from the Classical Period. Consists of three main parts: Exposition, Development, Recapitulation, and smaller Coda ('tail').
Exposition • First section, where the keys and themes are “exposed” for the listener. Theme 1 in home key, transition modulates, Theme 2 in new key, closing section. The exposition is played twice.
Development • The second section. Themes 1 and 2 are fragmented and made into motives. Constant modulation with NO occurrence of the home key. Lots of tension, and even polyphonic texture. At the end of nearly every development, you can sense that it?s "running out of steam".
Recapitulation • The third section. You hear the home key coincide with Theme 1 again. Your ear remembers this sound from the very beginning. Structurally, the recapitulation is like the exposition, except that there is NOMODULATION IN THE RECAPITULATION. Theme 2 is in the home key.
Coda • "tail"; the very end of a movement. Nothing new, just a nice big cadence to signify that THIS IS THE END.
Symphony • A Multi-movement work for orchestra. Usually, the work is in 4 movements and follows the standard “Sonata cycle” Fast-Slow-Dancelike-Fast plan.
W.A. Mozart • 1756-1791 • Composed first pieces at age 5 • First symphony at age 8. • First opera at age 12.