The Indian subcontinent
8 Independent Nations • India • Pakistan • Bangladesh • Nepal • Bhutan • Island nations of Sri Lanka and Maldives • Afghanistan in the northwest is also often considered part of South Asia.
Large landmass in Southern hemisphere- broke up (Gondwanaland) • 1 landmass pushed north-collided-mainland Asia • Himalaya and Hindu Kush mountains moved. • Formed barriers separating South Asia from the rest of Asia.
Religious Traditions • Hinduism is the chief religion of India. • No founder • No formal church • Ancient Aryan beliefs and practices
What is the symbol of Hinduism? • Aumis the main symbol of Hinduism. It is the sound heard in deepest meditation and is said to be the name most suited for God.
Sacred Texts • Vedas • Internal truths that were reveled to wise men • Upanishads ( oo pan ihshadz) • Helped to explain the ideas contained in the Vedas • The Ramayana (rah mahyuh) and the Mahabharata (muh hah bah rah tuh) • Two of the most famous hindu epics.
Brahman • Hindus worshiped thousands of Gods. • Each god is part of a single supreme force called brahman. • the eternal, unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe
3 Main Gods • Brahma- creator • Vishnu- preserver • Siva- destroyer • Each has own family. • Sects- group with distinctive religious, political or philosophical beliefs. • Atman (AHT MUHN)- an essential self, part of a universal soul.
Karma • “to do” • Every deed, mental or physical, in this life affects a persons fate in future life.
Buddhism • Guatama’s enlightenment • Realized there was suffering and misery • Set out to find the cause of misery • 6 years-found the answer • Known as Buddha or “enlightened one”
The Buddha’s Teachings • Four Noble Truths • 1) Suffering is universal • 2) Cause of suffering is desire • 3) only way to end suffering is to crush desire • 4) the only way to end desire is to follow the Noble Eightfold Path. • Denied the existence of Gods • Rejected the caste system
Noble Eightfold Path • The Noble Eightfold Path: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.
Other Religious Traditions • Mahavira, the historical founder of Jainism • elder contemporary of the Buddha • known as Jina (literally, conquerer) after he overcame the wretched cycle of rebirth by achieving enlightenment. • Jain devotees often commissioned manuscripts of sacred literature for temple libraries in order to gain spiritual merit. • Many of these manuscripts contain vibrant illustrations that depict Mahavira meditating or teaching.
Countries Afghanistan China Iran Bhutan Nepal Pakistan Myanmar India Bangladesh Sri Lanka
cities Kabul Islamabad Lahore Kathmandu New Delhi Benares Thimbu Karachi Dacca Calcutta Bombay Madras Colombo
Ten Geographic Qualities • 1. Sub-region of Asia - Indian Subcontinent • 2. Mostly Dry Flat Plateau Area • 3. Soon to be the largest population concentration in the world -1.3 Billion • 4. Center of Hindu Religious Concentration • 5. Hundreds of languages & ethnic groups
6. Colonial Exploitation of this resource rich area • 7. Highest Mountains in the world • 8. Historically an Asian crossroads for trade
9. Region is dominated by monsoon rains • 10. Culturally vibrant Hindus, Moslems, Jaines, Seiks
Topography of South Asia
Bodies of Water Indus R. Brahmaputra R. Ganges R. Bay ofBengal Arabian Sea Indian Ocean
Surrounded by the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. • Highways (link)
Indus River- empties into the Arabian Sea. • Principal river in Pakistan • Majority of Pakistan's live in the Indus River Basin • South Asia’s earliest civilization developed in the Indus Valley. • Ganges • Most holy river • Thousands of pilgrims come to purify themselves in the river.
Mountains & Peaks Hindu Kush KhyberPassI I Karakoran Mts. Mt. Everest▲ Himalayas Vindhya Hills Eastern Ghats Western Ghats
Himalayas- stretch 1500 miles east to west, snowcaped. • Many of the worlds tallest mountains • Mt. Everest, on the border of Nepal and Tibet • Hindu Kush (death) • Khyber Pass- is a mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Himalayas • “him” [snow] • “aalaya” [home] • Mt. Everest is 29,035 feet. It is the highest mt. peak in the world.
Deserts / Plateaus TibetanPlateau TharDesert DeccanPlateau
Completed Map Hindu Kush KhyberPassI I Karakoran Mts. TibetanPlateau Kashmir Mt. Everest▲ Punjab Indus R. Brahmaputra R. Himalayas Indo-GangeticPlain TharDesert Ganges R. Vindhya Hills Bay ofBengal DeccanPlateau Eastern Ghats Western Ghats Arabian Sea Indian Ocean
Climate of South Asia
Natural Hazards • Many natural hazards--monsoons, typhoons, volcanoes, and earthquakes • Monsoon--a seasonal shift in the prevailing winds that influences large climate regions • Typhoon--a destructive tropical storm occurring in the western Pacific Ocean or the China Sea, similar to a hurricane
Monsoon • “To know India and her people, one has to know the monsoon.” • To the people of India the monsoons are a source of life. • Key to farmers • Influenced art and literature of South Asia • Very distinctive seasonal precipitation regime • (RESULTS OF CATASTROPHIC RAINFALL) • Widespread flooding • Property damage • Destruction to agricultural lands • Damage to transportation infrastructure • Homelessness • Disease • Malnutrition • Serious injury • Death
Demographic Data for South Asia
People of South Asia • Did you know that more people live in India than in Central America, North America and South America – altogether! • The population of Hindus approximately 3 times bigger than population of the USA. • More than 60% of the world's population live in Asia. • In China live 1.3 billion of people and in India 1.1 billion. • In South Asia live more Muslims than in the whole Middle East, yet Muslims in South Asia is less than 15% of total population.
Patterns of Life • Indian society developed into a complex system based on class and caste systems. • Caste- based on the idea that there are separate kinds of humans. • Higher caste- purer than lower • Rules were meant to help people remain spiritually pure. • Governed cooking, eating, marriage, employment • Ex)Braham could only eat food prepared by another Braham.
Modernization and the Caste System • People from different castes mix. • Former untouchables might be allowed to draw water from the village well and worship at the village temple. • Children attend public schools (separate rooms)
Five different levels • Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra, and Harijans. • Within each of these categories are the actual "castes" or jatiswithin which people are born, marry, and die.