French Revolution Toward a New Political Order
Daily Response • Define “revolution” • List as many revolutions as you can
Revolution • Usually seen as radical, bloody overthrows of political power followed by the institution of extensive changes in government and society.
Revolution vs. Evolution • Revolution: Root in the term evolution • A slow, steady and pervasive change over a long period of time • Re means to do it again, to ∆ nature of things • Do revolutions have to be bloody? • Examples of those that that have not been bloody?
Beatles, “Revolution”: RESPONSE • Why have people in the past struggles for their rights? • What do you think of when you hear the term revolution? • What do you know about revolutions? • What’s the difference between a war and a revolution? • Identify conditions existing within a society that would propel people to embark upon a revolution • What does the Beatles’ revolution seem to be about?
French Revolution Preview • Identify what’s happening in each slide and hypothesize its meaning & significance
Experiencing the Fervor of the French Revolution
Overview • You will experience the stages of the French Revolution by assuming the role of an individual – a monarch, a member of the clergy, or a commoner – in revolutionary France. • 3 Stages to experience: • Financial Crisis • Meeting of the Estates General • Reign of Terror
Stage 1: Financial Crisis
Step 1: Background Information • You will be assuming the role of members of French society during the 1780s. • Arrangements: • One lord at each manor • Peasants on the floor • Lords & clergy sit at desks • Royalty sit atop desks • Read the description of the character that appears in italics at the top of the role card. • Underline important information
Step 2: Discuss Background Info • For each of the following slides, respond to the following questions: • Take notes as we proceed
Palace of Versailles • Who was King Louis XVI? • When did her reign over FR? • What was the Palace of Versailles? • How did Louis XVI use the palace to increase his power?
King Louis XVI • Who was King Louis XVI? • When did he reign? • Who was the Queen of France during King Louis XVI reign?
Marie Antoinette • Where was she from? • Did she express a concern for the French people?
Step 3: Peasants Prepare Food • Peasants: use scratch paper & scissors to carefully reproduce the food token that appears on you’re your role card • Peasants: Remember!! • Food production is crucial to the well-being & stability of French society • Your primary function in society is to produce food • If you do not reproduce tokens, you will “starve” & lose points for the activity • You must work until you produce 20 food tokens • Other members: watch, talk, provide words of encouragement, or simply relax!
Step 4: Peasants Pay Taxes • The government will collect taxes and the Church will collect tithes!! • Lords: • Collect all food tokens from peasants • Clergy: • Go to each manor and take 10% of all food tokens as the Church’s tithe • Controller-General: • Take 50% of the food tokens as the govt’s tax and show it to the king & queen • Lords: • Keep ½ of the rest of the manor’s food tokens & evenly distribute the remaining tokens to the peasants. (**Keep your food tokens for Stage 2!!)
Step 5: Controller-General:Emergency Announcement • Controller-General: read your emergency announcement (appears on Step 5 or your role card) • ……. • Realize: Serious measures may be taken to remedy this situation!!
Stage 1: Connecting with History • Respond to the following questions: (DON’T write) • How did it feel to be a monarch? The Controller-General? A noble? A member of the clergy? A peasant? • How does it feel to be “born” into a role you cannot change? • Who has the most power in society? Who has the least? • What are some of the advantages of organizing a society in this way? What are some disadvantages? • What do you think should have been done to save the French Revolution? • In what ways do you think your experience was different from the historical reality? In what ways was it similar?
Stage 1: Historical Summary Take Notes on the Following Slides!!
French Estates • Wars w/ Eng.→ National Debt (spent > received) • Extravagant lifestyle @ Versailles • Sharp rise in TAXES!! • Peasants burdened • - Poor harvests • - Paid taxes • - ↑in P of bread
Meeting of Estates General(not since 1614!!) • To solve financial crisis: Louis XVI called it to meet (*Necker) • 3 orders: clergy, nobility, commoners
Stage 2: Experiencing the Meeting of the Estates General
Step 1: King Assembles Estates General for Advice • Receive the role card that corresponds with the role you assumed for Stage 1 • Assume the correct places in the classroom • Third Estate needs to stand! Others may sit. • Carefully read the description of your character • Redistribute tokens • King Louis XVI speaks: … • Class should kneel in reverent silence as he speaks • Applaud when he is finished
Step 2: Three Estates Prepare to Meet • Prepare for the meeting of the Estates General • Decide whether to vote by head or by order • Draft a proposal to solve the financial crisis • Designate a spokesperson to present the proposal to the king & queen • Create a banner with a slogan & a visual symbol representing your estate • Take 20-25 minutes to complete all tasks
Step 3: Each Estate Proposes a Plan to Save France • Spokesperson for the First Estate approach the throne, kneel before monarchs, & present the Estate’s proposal • Spokesperson from Second Estate “ • Spokesperson from Third Estate “ • Third Estate: How do you feel?
Step 4: King Proposes Plan to Save France • King: Read statement from Step 4 of role card: …
Step 5: Estates General Vote on King’s Plan • Three Estates: Discuss the king’s proposal for 1-2 minutes & then vote by order on it • Take a vote … who wins?? • King: Read statement from Step 5 on role card: … • How does the Third Estate feel?
Step 6: Severe Famine Occurs • A severe famine has occurred. Bread prices have doubled. Commoners are having extreme difficulty obtaining food. • I will collect all but one token from member of the Third Estate. • Bread prices are increasing: they doubled in 1789 … How would you feel??
Step 7: Third Estate Respond to the Situation • Third Estate: Respond tob the following questions: • Describe what happened at the Estates General • How does it feel to be a member of the Third Estate? • Do you agree w/ the results of the Estates General? Explain. • Which groups had the most power during the Estates General? The least? • How did you feel when the famine occurred? Why?
Step 7: Third Estate Respond to the Situation • What options do the members of the Third Estate have to change their status? • How many people of the Third Estate would now vote to meet apart from the privileged orders as the true representatives of the people of France & start their own government? • How many people of the First & Second Estates would support the members of the Third Estate who wish to start a new government? Why?
Step 7: Third Estate Respond to the Situation • Take a vote • …
Step 7: Third Estate Respond to the Situation A REVOLUTION HAS BEGUN!! Revolutionary Students: • Hold out one hand in front of you and repeat the actual Tennis Court Oath as follows: • “I swear an oath to God and nation never to be separated until we have formed a solid and equitable Constitution as out constituents have asked us to.”
Stage 2: Connecting with History • How did it feel to be a monarch during the meeting of the Estates General? The Controller-General? A noble? A member of the clergy? A peasant? • For those who voted to meet as a separate body, how did it feel to take that action? • For those who chose not to become part of the revolutionary movement, how did it feel to see so many people move toward revolution? • Who might have the power in society after the meeting of the Estates General? Who might have the least? • What questions do you have about the similarities between your experience and the historical reality? About the differences?
Stage 2: Historical Summary Take Notes on the Following Slides!!
Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789) • Clear that Estates General would meet & vote as separate orders … • Members of the National Assembly: True Representative Body of FR • For a New Constitution (never disband until written)
Rumors spread that king’s troops were coming to sack Paris … Storming of the Bastille (July 1789) • Medieval fort & prison • For gunpowder (defend against King Louis XVI) • Revolutionary crowds took it (98 ppl killed, soldiers surrendered • Why was this a spark?
The March on Versailles (October 5, 1789) • ↑in unemployment & hunger • 7,000 desperate women demanded bread (WHY Women??) • Invaded palace, killed several guards→ King moved to Paris, never to return to Versailles
Stage 3: Experiencing the Radical Republic
Step 1: Louis XVI Recognizes the National Assembly • Receive the role card that correspond with the role you played for Stage 2 • Robespierre: From Third Estate • Carefully read the description of your character • **Important: Member of the National Assembly are now considered supporters of the revolution, even if you didn’t support it in Step 5 of Stage 2 • Louis XVI makes his speech: … • National Assembly should applaud at the end
Step 2: Controller-General Describes the Financial Crisis • Controller-General: Make speech from Step 2: … • See … still financial problems during the revolution …
Step 3: National Assembly Discusses & Proposes Solutions • National Assembly: discuss among yourselves solutions to the financial crisis (2-3 minutes) • Call any member of your National Assembly to kneel before the monarchs and make your proposal • Voice vote • If approved … do you approve, king? (king: refer to Step 3 on your role card) • Continue to work out a compromise
Step 4: Robespierre Announces a Revolutionary Plan • Robespierre receives secret document • Robespierre: stand & dramatically read from Step 4: … • National Assembly: may examine document as “proof” that the king & queen are traitors • Raise your hands if you’re in favor!!
Step 5: National Assembly Puts the King on Trial • Robespierre: Ask members of the National Assembly: • “Who will speak in defense of this wicked king?” • King: You may speak on your own behalf • Robespierre: if supporters emerge … are they traitors? Call them out!! • Vote: is king guilty or innocent? • Robespierre: “Who votes to convict the king as guilty of treason?
Step 5: National Assembly Puts the King on Trial • The king is convicted and he’s sentenced to death!! ….. By what means??
Guillotine • I will escort the king to the Cemetery …
Step 6: Robespierre Leads the Radical Republic • Robespierre: read your speech from Step 6 • Begin discussing a new constitution • Meanwhile … Robespierre: identify traitors to your cause that you want “executed” (6-8)