Bell Ringer 2.5.2013 • Objective:SWBAT define cognition and explain models of memory. • Take out your reading notes (mod. 8-11) to be checked, if necessary. • On your bell ringer, write down a definition of cognition in your own words!
Overall average mastery • Period 6: 51.32% • Period 8: 55.67%
Mastery • From now on, the curve on tests will be as follows: • 80% or higher = A • 70% or higher = B • 60% or higher = C • 50% or lower = D • 30% or lower = F
Mastery • Using the mastery trackers (passed out and around the room), record your mastery for each unit. • Please note your AVERAGE mastery at the bottom of the box!
Unit 8: Cognition Key Ideas • Models of memory • Encoding new memories • Organization of memories in LTM • Retrieving stored memories • Forgetting • Thinking • Problem solving • Creativity • Language
COGNITION • cognition: all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering language. • Thinking, memory, language
Memory • memory: human capacity to register, retain, and remember information. • There are three models of memory: • Information Processing Model • Levels of Processing Theory or Semantic Network Theory • Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
Models of Memory • Different models are used because no one model accounts for all memory phenomena.
Information Processing Model • Our mind is compared to a computer • Encoding, storage, retrieval • Encoding: the process of putting information into the memory system • Storage: the retention of encoded information over time • Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory
Information Processing Model • e.g. encoding is like typing information into a word document. Storage is like saving the document to your hard drive. Retrieval would be later opening the document. • We are unable to process all incoming sensory information, so we have to focus on aspects of available information.
Information Processing Model • focused (selective) attention: attending to one task over another. • divided attention: the difficult process of trying to attend to two complex tasks at once.
Information Processing Model • Research with people listening to two different inputs in each ear shows that when directed to only attend to one ear, other information was not processed, unless the participant heard their name. • CPE demo
Information Processing Model • Cocktail party effect: hearing your name, even in noisy situations, draws your attention. (video)
Levels of Processing Model • The ability to form memories depends upon the depth of the processing. • Shallow processing: structural encoding emphasizes structure of incoming sensory information, like lines or general shapes. • e.g. when waiting to cross the street, we know that traffic goes by, but we might not pay attention to every vehicle.
Levels of Processing Model • Deep processing: semantic encoding involves forming an association or attaching meaning to a sensory impression and results in longer-lasting memories. • elaboration: creating associations between new and existing memories.
Levels of Processing Model • Semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input. • Most of the information we recall over a long period of time is semantically encoded.
Levels of Processing Model • Self-reference effect ( self-referent encoding): processing information deemed important or relevant more deeply, making it easier to recall.
Three-Stage Model • Atkinson-Shiffrin model: three memory systems – sensory, short-term, and long-term. • Sensory memory: memory system that holds external events from the senses for up to a few seconds. • DEMO
Three-Stage Model • visual encoding: the encoding of picture images. • iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli. • This is why we don’t see gaps between frames in movies.
Three-Stage Model • acoustic encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words. • echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli • Lasts for about 4 seconds. • This accounts for why we can hear a steady stream of sound.
Three-Stage Model • Selective attention facilitates the encoding of sensory memory into short-term memory. • automatic processing: unconscious encoding of information about space, time, and frequency that occurs without interfering with our thinking about other things.
Three-Stage Model • parallel processing: a natural mode of information processing that involves several information streams simultaneously. • effortful processing: encoding that requires our attention and conscious effort.
Three-Stage Model • Feature extraction (pattern recognition): finding a match for new raw information in sensory storage by actively searching through long-term memory.
Bell Ringer 2.6.2013 • Objective:SWBAT explain models of memory. • Take out your mastery tracker to turn in! • Briefly describe the Levels of Processing model of memory OR the Information Processing Model.
Short-Term Memory • Short-term memory (STM): working memory with about 20 seconds before information is forgotten. • Can hold seven plus or minus two items. • This can also translate to 5-9 items • DEMO
Short-Term Memory • How do we combat this short term memory? • rehearsal: conscious repetition of information to either maintain information in STM or to encode it for storage.
Short-Term Memory • maintenance rehearsal: repetition that keeps information in STM about 20 seconds. • elaborative rehearsal: repetition that creates associations between the new memory and existing memories stored in LTM.
Short-Term Memory • Chunking: grouping information into meaningful units increasing the capacity of STM. • e.g. phone numbers • Mnemonic devices: memory tricks or strategies to make information easier to remember.
Short-Term Memory • Method of loci: uses visualization with familiar objects on a path to recall information in a list. • Peg word system: uses association of terms to be remembered with a memorized scheme (“one is a bun, two is…”)
Short-Term Memory • Baddley’s working memory model: a more complex model than just passive STM. • phonological loop: briefly stores information about language sounds with an acoustic code from sensory memory and a rehearsal function that lets us repeat words in the loop.
Short-Term Memory • visuospatial working memory: briefly stores visual and spatial information from sensory memory, including imagery (mental pictures). • central executive: actively integrates information from the phonological loop, visuospatial working memory, and long-term memory as we associate old and new information, solve problems, and perform other cognitive tasks.
Short-Term Memory • Working memory accounts for our ability to carry on a conversation (phonological loop) while exercising (visuospatial working memory) at the same time.
Long-Term Memory • Long-term memory (LTM): relatively permanent storage with unlimited capacity, LTM is subdivided into explicit (declarative) memory and implicit memory.
Long-Term Memory • Explicit (declarative) memory: memory of facts and experiences that one consciously knows and can verbalize. Explicit memory is subdivided into semantic and episodic memory.
Long-Term Memory • Semantic memory: memory of general knowledge or objective facts. • Episodic memory: memory of personally experienced events.
Long-Term Memory • Implicit (nondeclarative) memory: retention without conscious recollection of learning skills and dispositions. • Procedural memory: memory of motor or cognitive skills, and classical and operant conditioning effects. • Tasks that we perform without thinking. • e.g. tying our shoelaces
Organization of Memories • Hierarchies: systems in which concepts are arranged from more general to more specific classes. Plants Flowers Rose
Organization of Memories • Concepts: mental representations of related things. • Prototypes: the most typical examples of a concept.
Organization of Memories • Semantic networks: more irregular and distorted systems than strict hierarchies, with multiple links from one concept to others. • Schemas: frameworks of basic ideas and preconceptions about people, objects, and events based on past experience. • Script: a schema for an event.
Organization of Memories • Connectionism theory: memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons, many of which work together to process a single memory. • Neural network: parallel processing model that emphasizes the simultaneous processing of information, which occurs automatically and without our awareness.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • According to neuroscientists, learning involves strengthening of neural connections at the synapses, called long-term potentiation (LTP).
Biology of Long-Term Memory • LTP involves an increase in the efficiency with which signals are sent across the synapses within neural networks of long-term memories. • This requires fewer neurotransmitters to make neurons fire and an increase in receptor sites.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • Flashbulb memory: a vivid memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. • e.g. where were you when you heard about 9/11?
Biology of Long-Term Memory • Associated with an increase of adrenal hormones triggering release of energy for neural processes and activation of the amygdala and hippocampus involved in emotional memories.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • Specific regions are more actively involved in both short-term and long-term memories. • thalamus: involved in encoding sensory information into STM.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • hippocampus: involved in putting information from STM into LTM.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • amygdala: involved in the storage of emotional memory.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • cerebellum: processes implicit memories and seems to store procedural memory and classically conditioned memories.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • Destruction of the hippocampus results in anterograde amnesia, the inability to put new information into explicit memory. • No new semantic memories are formed.
Biology of Long-Term Memory • Retrograde amnesia: involves memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident, such as a blow to the head. • This may result from disruption of the process of long-term potentiation.