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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

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Ancient Egypt

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  1. Ancient Egypt

  2. Ancient Egypt Vocabulary • Cataracts • Delta • Pharaoh • Dynasty • Nobles • Afterlife • Mummies • Elite • Pyramids • Engineering • Trade routes • Hieroglyphics • Papyrus

  3. Ancient Egypt • Sphinxes • Obelisks • Trade network • Merchants • Exports • Imports

  4. Ancient Egypt Nile • Starts as the Blue Nile, originating in Ethiopia; and the White Nile, originating in Sudan/Uganda • Flows South to North into the Mediterranean Sea

  5. Ancient Egypt Nile • Divided in two main parts • Upper Nile (most of the it) and the lower Nile • Lower Nile is the delta of the Nile • Annual flooding called the “Miracle of the Nile” brings water and fertile soil (silt) • Those silt fields brought great wealth to the civilization

  6. Ancient Egypt Nile • Four Kingdoms • Lower Egypt • Upper Egypt • Nubia • Kush

  7. Nile Delta Lower Egypt Upper Egypt Nubia Kush Nile Delta

  8. Ancient Egypt History • Menes, the first king who joined the Upper and Lower kingdoms; capital at Memphis (not TN) • became the first Egyptian dynasty around 3100 B.C. • Menes is considered the first pharaoh • part god, part human

  9. Ancient Egypt The Old Kingdom (2700-2100 B.C.) • Pharaohs • ruled with absolute power • Vizier – was the “steward of the whole land” • Under the vizier where the governors of the 42 provinces • One famous vizier was Imhotep • Built the first pyramid

  10. Ancient Egypt Social Structure • Three Classes (below pharaoh) • Nobles – government officials and priests • Scribes/craftsman • Farmers, servants, and slaves

  11. Ancient Egypt Influences • Sumerian designs • Nubian poetry • Trade with other areas brought in even more influences

  12. Ancient Egypt Religion • Polytheistic • Two groups • Sun gods • The sun, to the Egyptians, was the source of life • In human form, he was Atum • Or as Ra, with a falcon head

  13. Ancient Egypt Religion (continued) • Land gods • Osiris, King of the Afterlife • Isus, Osiris’ wife and sister • Seth, Osiris’ brother • Horus, Osiris and Isus’ son

  14. Ancient Egypt Religion • Mummies • To preserve the bodies of the dead, priests mummified (embalmed) the bodies • mostly for wealthy families who could afford it • removed certain organs and buried them in jars with the body • process took about 70 days

  15. Ancient Egypt Religion– Pyramids • Massive tombs for the pharaohs • Large one for the pharaoh • Smaller ones for the family • even smaller for pharaoh’s officials • Tombs included chairs, boats, chests, weapons games, food, etc.

  16. Ancient Egypt Religion (continued) • Afterlife (life after death) • Believed in ka, a person’s life force (spirit), and that it left the body after death, but could not leave the burial site • At burial, everything a person might need for the afterlife was placed in the tomb (including food)

  17. Ancient Egypt Old Kingdom – Pyramids • The Great Pyramid • built for King Khufu at Giza, Egypt • 481 feet tall, 756 feet along each side • Great Sphinx • Supposedly the face is a likeness to the son of Khufu, Khafre • And supposedly it is the guardian of the sacred site

  18. Ancient Egypt • Middle Kingdom • Egypt conquered Nubia, the area south of Egypt, in present day Sudan • Public works were widespread • Provided for the public welfare • Canal dug from Nile to the Red Sea

  19. Ancient Egypt Middle Kingdom • Invasion of the Hyksos • Had horses and chariots • won against the Egyptian army • Ahmose of Thebes learned and used the Hyksos’ technology to defeat them and brought forth the New Kingdom

  20. Egypt New Kingdom • Egypt conquered Kush, forced them to pay annual payments • Conquered some of western Fertile Cresent • Assyrian, Babylonia, and the Hittites sent gifts to keep the Egyptians happy

  21. Ancient Egypt Leaders of the New Kingdom • Hatshepsut - first woman pharaoh • Thutmose III – expanded the kingdom to parts of the Fertile Crescent

  22. Ancient Egypt • Amenotep IV or Akhenaton – introduced a god named Aton. • wanted Egyptians to worship only Aton (Monotheism-worship of only one god) • Tutankhamen – restored old pantheon, boy King Tut • Ramses II – Expanded the previously lost borders back into Palestine

  23. Ancient Egypt New Kingdom • A still unknown “Sea Peoples” (Greeks?) invaded SW Asia • Egypt defeated them, but lost their empire and never again was powerful

  24. Ancient Egypt Work and Daily Life • Scribes • Accountants, record keepers, and writers • Artisans, Artists, and Architects • Highly regarded because their skills and because they designed the pyramids and temples

  25. Ancient Egypt Work and Daily Life • Soldiers • Were paid in land and could keep some treasures of war • Farmers/Peasants • Had to pay taxes in grain and could be forced to go to war or work on building projects

  26. Ancient Egypt Work and Daily Life • Family Life • Men married early; started work at 14 • Women stayed at home; had legal rights • Children were educated in writing, math, morals, and sports

  27. Ancient Egypt Achievements/Advancements • Writing (Hieroglyphics) • Over 600 symbols that had sounds • Papyrus, paper made from reeds • Kept preserved by the dry climate • Can read many texts from ancient Egypt

  28. Ancient Egypt • Rosetta Stone • Napoleonic French soldier in 1799 found a key to reading the hieroglyphics • Had Greek, later Egyptian writing, and hieroglyphic translations

  29. Ancient Egypt • Architecture • Pyramids and temples • Sphinxes – images/sculptures of human/animal heads on a lions body • Obelisks – tall, four-sided pillar with pointed top

  30. Ancient Kush • Nubia • Today it is a desert • Ancient Nubia was fertile from flooding like in Egypt and had easily accessible gold, copper, and stone • Ancient Nubia relied on grains and livestock

  31. Ancient Kush • From Nubia to Kush • One rich farmer took over several villages along the Nile, made himself king, and renamed Nubia Kush • They traded with Egypt and lived in peace of a time

  32. Ancient Kush • Egypt-ruled Kush • Thutmose I took over Kush • The people assimilated into Egyptian culture • Lasted 450 yearsuntil the end of the New Kingdom

  33. Ancient Kush • Kush-ruled Egypt • Kushite kings Kashta and Piankhi took over all of Egypt • Piankhi’s brother Shabaka proclaimed himself pharaoh and renewed old Egyptian customs building new temples and pyramids

  34. Ancient Kush • Late Kush • Assyrians gained power and conquered Egypt kicking out Kushites • Iron • Kush started to produce iron and opened a trade network with Greece, Egypt, and perhaps even China • They would export iron and import foreign goods

  35. Ancient Kush • Decline • Kushites allowed cows to overgraze and cut down all of their trees which allowed the desert to encroach • Could no longer trade and Ethiopia conquered them and eventually converted them to Christianity