Ancient Egypt How They Impacted Civilization
(A) THE DELTA North of Memphis, the Nile divided into channels, to form a delta. Much of this land was swampy, but the rest was good for farming. (B) OASIS The Western Desert had a few places where enough water was available for crops to be grown. These were called oases. (C) THE EASTERN DESERT The Eastern Desert had no oases but it contained valuable minerals, including gold. (D) THE VALLEY The valley was only 19 km wide but over 5,960 km long. (E) CATARACTS Ships sailing south were stopped by cataracts (rapids). Good Farming Land Irrigation systems Complex flood patterns Mathematical skills required Advanced planning required The Nile Gives Birth to a New Civilization
(A) HARVEST When the main crops were ready, nearly everyone - men and women, even priests - helped with the harvest. (B) MUSIC Musicians played while work went on in the fields. At planting time, magic spells were chanted to make the crops grow. (C) WINNOWING Women scooped the grain up with wooden trays, letting the chaff blow away while the heavier grain fell to the ground. (D) TAXES Farmers paid part of their crop as taxes. Scribes kept careful records of the amounts. (E) CATTLE Young boys helped to look after the livestock. A man's wealth could be judged by the cattle he owned. Farmers also owned sheep, goats, and donkeys. Surplus Food Produced Store for future use Trade for other goods Not everyone needs to farm New trades and specialities develop Producing More than enough Food
(A) MERCHANT SHIPSmall boats were made of bundles of reeds tied together. Larger ships were built of wood. This one sailed through the dangerous Red Sea.(B) CARGOShips had no deck, except for short sections at each end, and the crew stowed cargo in the open hold. The ship had oars and one large sail.(C) THE LAND OF PUNTShips that sailed to Punt were carried across the desert in pieces and built on the shore of the Red Sea. Punt was probably in eastern Africa, but nobody knows exactly where. New Products and Ideas can be imported Makes money which can be invested Cities To please the Gods Trading the Surplus
Craftsmen New jobs available for talented craftsmen Surplus food Production allows for their wages to be paid New Products and Skills Develop Some with medical application! (A) POTTERY Pots of many shapes and sizes were made from local clay. It was shaped by hand in a mold made of stiff sand, given a glaze, and hardened in fire. (B) GOLD The Egyptians had plenty of gold, mostly from mines in Nubia. Jewellery and gold-plated objects were made. Statues and even a king's coffin were made of solid gold. (C) SANDALS The shoemaker's trade was simple, because the only shoes people wore were sandals, made of leather or papyrus reed. Usually they went barefoot. (D) WOOD CARVING This man is making a wooden animal. Most woodworking tools, such as saws and chisels, have not changed much since.
A New Hierarchy Develops • Agricultural and Trading opportunities allow New Hierarchy to be formed • Elite/Aristocracy • Pay wages to others to work for them • Life of leisure • Free time to think • New ideas • New Inventions • New Skills
Hieroglyphics • Development of Writing • Papyrus • Pictographs • Allows ideas to be transferred • Can spread throughout Egypt • Can be passed down through generations
(A) RAISING STONE BLOCKSOne of the hardest jobs was moving the heavy stone blocks into place. The builders made huge ramps of earth and dragged the stones up the ramps with ropes.(B) SUPERVISORSOfficials, who were probably priests, directed the gangs of workmen.(C) SHAPING THE STONEEach stone was carefully measured and shaped to fit into place.(D) ACCIDENTSMany workmen were killed or injured, crushed by the heavy stone blocks. Large Scale projects were now feasible Planning Writing and Mathematics New Tools Public Works projects Sophisticated Civilization
Towns and Cities Develop • Craftsmen, traders, labourers find it easier and more convenient to live in towns and cities. • Urban economy and lifestyle develops • Medical threats to an urban population?
Hygienic Lifestyle • Personal Hygiene • Very important • Public Works allow for • Drain Systems • Water Delivery systems • Bathing
Who were the Medical Care Givers? “It is seven days from yesterday since I saw my love, And Sickness has crept over me, My limbs have become heavy, I cannot feel my own body. If the Master-Physicians come to me I gain no comfort from their remedies. And the priest-magicians have no cures, My sickness is not diagnosed. My love is better by far for me than any remedies. She is more important than all the books of medicine.” Egyptian Love Poem c1500 BC
Religion • Very Important • Temples • Priests • Alternative medical care from master physicians • Charms • Still used extensively
Imphotep • Master Physicians • can be afforded by the very wealthy • Pharoah Zozer’s Physician • Adviser • Architect on some Pyramids • Healer • c2600 BC • Becomes God of Medicine • For Greeks and Egyptians • c500 BC
The Nile Theory • Attempt to Explain how the Body works and why people get sick • Related to their Natural Environment and their understanding of how the world works • River Nile • Channels (River) • Mixture of Blood and Air • Flows from the centre to extremeties • Disease • Caused by blockages of the channels • Caused by rotting food • Letting off gases • Prevents normal flow • A Rational Explanation
Ebers and Smith Papyri • Smith Papyrus • C1700 BC (but refers to Imphotep’s era) • Surgical treatments for wounds • Ebers Papyrus • C1500 BC • 110 Pages • Treatments for diseases • Herbal Remedies • Remedies used by Gods
Medical Kit • 1) knives; (2) drill; (3) saw; (4) forceps or pincers; (5) censer; (6) hooks; (7) bags tied with string; (8, 10) beaked vessel; (11) vase with burning incense; (12) Horus eyes; (13) scales; (14) pot with flowers of Upper and Lower Egypt; (15) pot on pedestal; (16) graduated cubit or papyrus scroll without side knot (or a case holding reed scalpels); (17) shears; (18) spoons.
The Afterlife? • Elaborate death ritual • Embalming Procedure • Directed by Priests • Uses sophisticated tools and techniques • HOWEVER • It is not a medical procedure • He is already dead!
Mummification Excessive respect for the Dead body Will hinder medical developments for many years Sacred Body does not allow for exploration or experimentation. Dissection Forbidden • (A) ANUBIS The priest in charge of the mummification wore the mask of Anubis (the god of the dead). (B) INCENSE A priest stands by, holding sweet-smelling incense. (C) WRAPPING THE BODY The body, or mummy, was wrapped in layers of linen before being placed in the coffin. (D) NATRON Natron, a kind of soda, was placed in the body to dry it out before it was wrapped in linen. (E) SOAKING THE BANDAGES Sometimes, linen strips were soaked in plaster so they would harden when dry.
Legacy of Egypt • Greece and Rome conquer Egypt • Greece and Rome respect many of the Egyptian ideas on medicine • Egyptian Physicians in demand in Ancient Greece • Role of Alexandria