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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

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Ancient Egypt

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  1. Ancient Egypt

  2. The Nile River • MOST important physical feature • Longest river in the world • 4,160 miles • Transportation • South to North flow • South blowing winds • Expected flooding patterns • Irrigation • Enriched soil

  3. The Nile River • Delta – a plain at the mouth of a river. Looks like a fan. • Silt – fine soil found on river bottoms. *Nutrient rich* • Hapi – the Egyptian god of the Nile River • “Hail to you, Oh Nile, who flows from the Earth and comes to keep Egypt alive!” – ancient Egyptian prayer

  4. The Nile River 1. Northern Flow 2. Green = Flooding 3. Winds south from Mediterranean

  5. The Nile River • Left deposits behind…. • Granite • Sandstone • Limestone • WHAT ARE THESE? • WHY DO THESE MATTER?

  6. The Nile River • Hunting and fishing communities as early as 6000 B.C. • Settled farming communities around 5000 B.C. • Trade with Africa to the South • Sail upriver. • Cataracts – rapids • Caravans

  7. First Peoples • 12,000 B.C.E. or earlier • Nomads • 6,000 – 5,000 B.C.E. • Fishing • Farming • Tools

  8. Over Centuries: Two Distinct Cultures Develop Upper Egypt in the South Lower Egypt in the North

  9. Videos

  10. 3200 BCE • King Menes • Unites Upper and Lower Egypt • Starts Dynasty • Dynasty= a series of rulers from the same family or ethnic group • Overtime • Trade Improves • Land gains • Wealthier • “The Old Kingdom”

  11. The Old Kingdom • 2680-2180 BCE • Rulers dubbed Pharaohs • Means: Great House • Absolute/Unlimited Power • Govt. Leaders, judges, high priests, and generals • Two Social Groups • Lower Class: Peasants, farmers. • Owed service to Pharaoh • Upper Class: Pharaoh, Royal family, priests, scribes, govt. officials

  12. The Old Kingdom • Memphis – First “capitol” city. Lower Egypt • Mastaba – First tombs/pyramids. Flat top • The Pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx built.

  13. First Intermediate Period • 2180-2050 BCE • Nobles gain strength • Weakened Pharaoh • Civil Wars between rivaling nobles • Severe Drought 2200-2150 • Regional Provinces actually did better without Pharaoh • No tribute to Pharaoh, in control of resources • Two powerhouses emerge • Lower Egypt- Herakleopolis • Upper Egypt- Thebes

  14. The Middle Kingdom • 2050-1650 BCE • New line of pharaohs regain power • Known as “Golden Age” • Stability and prosperity • Subtle change in social structure • Afterlife more inclusive • Canaanites from East move into the Delta region. Originally workers, seize control • 1780 BCE • Pharaoh is weakened again • Nobles and priests gain power again

  15. Second Intermediate Period • Hyksos (Canaanites) • Means “foreigners” • Technology • Chariots and compound bows • 1650-1570BCE: rule over much of Egypt • Ally with Nubians • Thebes left to stand alone

  16. The New Kingdom • 1570 – 1080 BCE • Upper Egypt forces Hyksos out • Pharaohs • Strengthen army: chariots and bows • Gain land • Eastern Mediterranean and Nubia in South • Diplomacy, first official peace treaty on record 1258 • Create an Empire • Individual rule over all • Colossal Building Projects

  17. Post Imperial Era • 1080-300s BCE • Few strong Pharaohs during New Kingdom • “Sea Peoples” attack • Weaken • Foreign empires • Assyrians, Nubians, and Persiansattack • By 300s, Egypt is ruled by foreigners

  18. Lower Egypt Upper Egypt Nubia The Nile River

  19. Cultural Achievements • 80 Pyramids still stand today • Paintings decorated Pyramids • Hieroglyphics- Writing • Calendar – 365 day cycle! • Herbal Medicines – treat illness and preserve bodies after death • Mathematics – based on 10 • Ship Building

  20. Education • Scribes • Elite • Learn to read and write • Work for government • Taught others

  21. Religion • Early Egypt had local gods • Often associated with an animal • Major gods • Amon: • Creator I • identified as the sun • Osiris: • Judged people after death

  22. Economy • Farming! • Wheat for food consumption • Flax: spun into Linen • Cotton for making cloth • Trade • Mediterranean • Red Sea