Ancient Egypt High School acceleration April 25-26, 2013
Timeline of Egyptian Kingdoms 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 BCE BCEBCEBCEBCE Pre-Dynastic ? – 2,600 BCE Old Kingdom 2600-2100 BCE Middle Kingdom 2100-1567 BCE New Kingdom 1567-1085 BC
Egyptian Milestones • Pre-Dynastic • Hieroglyphics (method of writing that used pictures for words) developed • Irrigation methods perfected by Mesopotamians were brought to Nile River Valley • Old Kingdom • Pyramids and sphinx were built during this time • Memphis was capital • Kingdom was divided into upper and lower
Egyptian Milestones (cont.) • Middle Kingdom • Upper and Lower kingdoms reunited • Economy and society grew with state-sponsored building plans • New irrigation and canal system introduced • Religious center was Thebes
Egyptian Milestones (cont.) • New Kingdom • Some of most famous pharaohs ruled – Tutankhamun (King Tut) and Ramses • Egypt begins to lose power; Invaded by Kushites and Assyrians • Begins canal from Nile to Red Sea • Economy prospers despite coming Persian invasion
Egyptian Milestones (cont.) • 525 B.C. Persian empire invades Egypt – King Darius finishes canal and connects Egypt to rest of Persian Empire • 404 B.C. Egypt regains control from Persia • 60 years later, Persia re-invades and ends native rule of Egypt • 332 B.C. – Alexander the Great invades Egypt. The city of Alexandria is started a year later. The famous library at Alexandria is built. • 30 B.C. – The Roman Empire takes over Egypt.
What was a pharaoh? • The pharaoh was the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people, • Had two title: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every Temple'. • ‘Lord of the Two Lands' meant he was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. He owned all of the land, made laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt against foreigners. • As 'High Priest of Every Temple', the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth. He performed rituals and built temples to honor the gods.
Egyptian Religion • Polytheistic • Most important god – Ra – the sun god/father of mankind
Anubis – God of the dead – embalmers would wear a jackal mask to represent Anubis
Egyptian social classes • Pharaoh – Ruler • Royal Officials – scribes, priests, nobles • Middle Class – merchants • Working Class – farmers, craftspeople in workshops, fishermen, boat builders, house workers • Slaves and Servants – worked for any class above them
Egyptian Lifestyle • Men and women treated equally and had equal rights • People could move from one social class to another • Education was based more on wealth than gender; school trained you for a skill • Plenty of vegetables were grown; grains ground into flour for bread; animals kept for meat