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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

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Ancient Egypt

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  1. Ancient Egypt Early River Valley Civilizations

  2. Geography • Settled along the Nile • Yearly flodding – but predictable! • Flood, plant, harvest, flood, plant, harvest… • Considered “Egypt, the gift of the Nile” • Deserts on both sides of the Nile • Natural protection against invaders • Reduced interaction with other people

  3. Egypt’s Government • NO independent city-states in Egypt • Menes, king of Upper Egypt, • Unites Lower & Upper (3100 BCE) • Captial– Memphis • First Egyptian Dynasty • Pharaohs considered as • Gods • Served both political and religious roles • Theocracy-type of government in which the ruler is a divine figure

  4. Egypt’s Government • Egyptians believe in afterlife • Pyramids built as final resting place for pharaohs • Tomb – very important place • Built during the Old Kingdom

  5. Kingdoms • Old Kingdom (2660-2180 BCE) • Great pyramids built • Weak rulers • Middle Kingdom (2180-1550 BCE) • Properous period • Kings in Thebes establish control over all Egypt • New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) • Egypt reunited

  6. Egyptian Religion • Polytheistic – belief in many gods • Ra – sun god • Horus – sky god • Osiris – god of the dead • Believe in an afterlife • Would be judged by Osiris • Mummification – embalming and preserving the corpse to prevent it from decaying Osiris would weigh each person’s heart on a scale against the weight of a feather. If the heart tipped the scale, heavey with sin, the Devourer of Souls would pounce on the heart

  7. Mummification Mummy of Ramses II still preserved today!

  8. Egyptian coffins PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.; photo British Museum

  9. BURIAL MASKS The famous golden mask of Tutankhamun and the less well known solid gold mask of Psusennes. Tjuyu and Yuya - Parents of Queen Tiy - Mother of Akhnaton. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  10. Egyptian Society

  11. Egyptian Writing • Hieroglyphics • Written on papyrus, reed from the Nile dried into strips • Rosetta Stone – 1799 • A polished black stone with hieroglyphics • Took a very long time to decipher

  12. Look at how similar writing between the early civilizations were…

  13. Science & Technology • Written Numbers • Collect taxes • Add • Subtract • Geometry – survey and reset property boundaries • Accurate Calendar • Stone columns – architects use in homes, palaces, and temples • Medicine – most famoous in the ancient world