Ch. 11: The Muslim World (622-1629) • Cultures & Trade in and around Asia • Between 400 and 1500, cultures of Asia, Africa, and Europe came into closer contact with one another. • Land and sea trade routes helped link distant areas. Trade and travel increased. • Conquering armies spread cultures from one region to another. • The spread of religions such as Christianity, Islam and Buddhism united large regions.
Islam emerged in Arabia in the 600s and grew into a major world religion.
ISLAM: Submission to the Will of Allah
IslamAn Abrahamic Religion • Muslims are strict monotheists. • They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they callAllah. • Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is the word of God. People of the Book
Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM SARAH Ishmael Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel
The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
The Qur'an: God's Last Revelation
Early History of Islam • Islam was founded in present day Saudi Arabia in the 600s C.E. • Muhammad was a successful merchant in Mecca, who was upset that people were worshipping idols (pagan statues) and were corrupt. • When he was 40 he went to a desert cave and meditated. • The angel, Gabriel, visited him in the desert and told him to do God’s work.
Muhammad received the word of God and with encouragement from his wife (Khadija) started to devote the rest of his life to spread Islam. • Many people did not like him in and in 622 C.E. he fled Mecca with his followers to Medina. • 622 C.E. became the first year in the Muslim calendar.
In 630 C.E. Muhammad returned to Mecca and was successful in taking over the city. • Muhammad worked to unite the Arabs under Islam. • Muhammad died in 632 C.E.
The Origins of the Qur’an • Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610. • 622 Hijrah Muhammad flees Mecca for Medina.* The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.) • Muhammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an after his death.
Sacred Text • The Qur’an = Muslims believe it contains the word of God. • 114 suras (chapters). • In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. • Written in Arabic.
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. The Shahada 1 • The profession of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God, andMuhammad is HisMessenger [or Prophet].
2. The Salat 2 • The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day:* dawn* noon* mid-afternoon * sunset * late evening • Wash before praying. • Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.
The call to prayer is sung by the muezzin from the minaret, roof or doorway of the mosque. • The noon prayer must take place in a mosque only on Friday, the Muslim holy day.
3. The Zakat 3 • Almsgiving (charitable donations). • Muslims believe that all things belong to God. • Zakat means both “purification” and “growth.” • About 2.5% of your income.
4. The Sawm 4 • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, 9th month of Islamic calendar. • Considered a method of self purification. • No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
5. The Hajj 5 • The pilgrimage to Mecca. • Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime. • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year.
Two main sects of Islam Sunnis • Majority • Believe that successors to Muhammad should be chosen by elected consensus. Shiites • Minority • Believe Muslim leaders should be descendants of Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali.
The Mosque • The Muslim place of worship.
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock is where Muhammad ascended into heaven.
The Arabic word for mosque is masjid, which means “place of prostration.” • Prostration = is the placement of the body in a submissive position. • Any open area may be used as a place of prayer and referred to as a masjid. • No human or divine images, no stain glass, statues of angels or Muhammad.
Other Islamic Religious Practices • No alcohol or pork. • No gambling. • Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living. • Three holiest cities in Islam:* Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.
Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion?
The Spread of Islam • Easy to learn and practice. • No priesthood. • Teaches equality. • Non-Muslims, who were “People of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. • Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes. • Jihad(“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”).
Countries with the Largest Muslim Populations • Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world. • 1.3 billion Muslim people on the planet!
Traditional Clothing • MEN • Long-sleeve tunic over baggy pants or a loose fitting gown • Head cap • Trimmed beard and mustache • WOMEN • Long skirt or loose fitting pants, long sleeves, head cover over the neck and shoulders • Some more extremist countries require a head veil but not all