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World War II

World War II

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World War II

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  1. World War II U.S. History Chapters 23,24

  2. Rise of Dictators and World War II Main Idea – The rise of dictators in Europe and Asia led to World War II. Aggressive leaders still threaten peace today. Ch. 23 & 24

  3. Steps to War • The Great Depression had ruined economies in Europe. Many Europeans turned to new leaders to solve their problems. • Who were the dictators that came to power in Europe? • Dictator – an absolute ruler. • Italy – Benito Mussolini – began a political movement – fascism – an extreme form of nationalism and racism. • Germany – Adolf Hitler – leader of the fascist National Socialist German Workers’ Party – or Nazi Party.

  4. Who am I? • Benito Mussolini • Italy Fascist and Totalitarian State

  5. Who am I? • Adolf Hitler • Germany

  6. Dictators come to power: • Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator took over upon the death of Vladimir Lenin (led the Communist takeover of Russia in 1917.) His government tried to control every aspect of life in the nation. • Japan – The military was gaining more and more power with army General Hideki Tojo having more power than the Emperor Hirohito.

  7. Who am I? • Joseph Stalin • Russia Communist and Totalitarian State

  8. Who am I? • Emperor • Hirohito • Japan General Hideki Tojo Prime Minister Totalitarian State

  9. Who am I? • Francisco Franco • Spain • Fascist who overthrows the democratic government.

  10. The Spanish Civil War:A Dress Rehearsal for WW II? Italian troops in Madrid

  11. Who am I? • Winston Churchill • Great Britain

  12. Who am I? • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • United States

  13. Define: • Fascism – political movement that preached intense nationalism and racism. • Adolf Hitler – Nazi dictator of Germany. • Nazi party – Fascist party that ruled Germany between 1933 – 1945, with Hitler as the dictator. • Dictator – absolute ruler. • Joseph Stalin – the Communist dictator of the Soviet Union.

  14. Axis Powers – the name of the alliance between Germany and Italy, and later would include Japan. • Benito Mussolini Dictator of Italy • General Hideki Tojo – Military leader of Japan. • 9. Appeasement – the policy of meeting a nation’s demands to avoid war. • 10. Lend - Lease Program – the policy in which the US sent war materials to the Allied Powers. • 11. Pearl Harbor – the site of the Japanese attack on the United States.

  15. 12. The Munich Agreement – Hitler and Neville Chamberlain, Britain’s Prime Minister, met in Munich, Germany. They made an agreement giving Germany control of the Sudetenland, in return, Hitler promised to stop taking anymore territory. This appeasement was supposed to make “peace in our time.” • 13. Blitzkrieg – a new method of warfare, using speed and surprise, “lightning war.” • 14. Luftwaffe - Germany’s air force • 15. The Battle of Britain – German planes flew massive bombing attacks on London and other civilian targets – but the British never surrendered.

  16. Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 1. Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations B. War Reparations 1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S. 2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent) 3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilsonduring negotiations for the Treaty

  17. Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 2. World-wide Depression A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders 1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems 1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks

  18. Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 2. World-wide Depression 2) Hitler provided scapegoats for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma (Gypsies), mentally ill, homosexuals) 3) Kristallnacht - vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues

  19. Why? • 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes A. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation Communist Dictatorship (USSR) Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy) Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community Totalitarianism Military Dictatorship (Japan)

  20. Why? • 4. Isolationism of Major Powers A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist? 1. Great Depression (problems at home) 2. Perceptions of WWI a. WWI did not seem to solve much b. People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)

  21. Why? • 4. Isolationism of Major Powers 3. Opposition to war (Pacifism) a. Washington Conference - Limits on size of country's navies b. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts

  22. Why? • 4. Isolationism of Major Powers 3. Opposition to war (Pacifism) a. Washington Conference - Limits on size of country's navies b. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts

  23. WorldWar II • CAUSES (Long Term) • WWI (the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles) • Dictators come to power in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union • Severe economic problems exist in Europe and Asia. • Italy, Germany, and Japan expand their territory. • The policy of appeasement fails.

  24. Immediate Causes • Germany invades Poland. • Japanese attack the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor

  25. Countries That Threatened World Peace • Japan • Military leaders took control of gov’t • Invaded Manchuria • Tried to expand in the Pacific • Joined the Axis Powers in 1940

  26. Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935 Emperor Haile Selassie

  27. Countries That Threatened World Peace • Italy • Mussolini seized control of the gov’t and the military and formed a fascist state • Italy formed alliance with Germany called the Axis Powers • Invaded Ethiopia in 1936 • Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war

  28. So What Was Hitler Asking For? • Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum” • Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938 German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

  29. So What Was Hitler Asking For? • Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum” • Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic) • Munich Conference - Great Britain & France give to Hitler in return for peace • Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

  30. Countries That Threatened World Peace • Germany • Dictator and fascist Adolph Hitler took control in 1934 • created a totalitarian state • built up Germany’s army

  31. The “Problem” of theSudetenland

  32. Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.

  33. The Austrian Anschluss, 1936

  34. So What Was Hitler Asking For? • Nonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland • Great Britain & France finally declare war on Germany Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939

  35. So What Was Hitler Asking For? • Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic) • Munich Conference - Great Britain & France give to Hitler in return for peace • Hitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

  36. So What Was Hitler Asking For? • Nonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland • Great Britain & France finally declare war on Germany Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939

  37. Countries That Threatened World Peace • Germany • Nazis attacked Jews and sent them to concentration camps • Hitler made alliance with Mussolini as an Axis Power • Supported Franco in Spain’s civil war

  38. Countries That Threatened World Peace • Germany • Threatened France’s border • Annexed Austria • Seized the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia

  39. German Aggression! Lightning War - Hitler invades Poland

  40. German Aggression Belgium Nazi Blitzkrieg April - May 1940 Hitler conquers Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands

  41. Defeated and forced to acknowledge the Nazi government.

  42. April 1940 The Miracle of Dunkirk

  43. Bombing damage in France.

  44. June 22, 1940 France surrenders September 1940 U.S. passes first peacetime draft

  45. German Aggression Battle of Britain Autumn 1940 - daily air raids over Britain - Unable to defeat the British quickly!

  46. German Aggression • Despite their partnership – Hitler and Stalin distrusted each other. (There is no honor among thieves or dictators.) • June1941 Germany invades the Soviet Union • September 1941 – January 1944 German troops surround the city. The Siege of Leningrad - - lasted 872 days • December 1941 – German advance to Moscow – harshest winter in decades. The weather and the Soviets push them back.

  47. Dec. 1940 The Lend-Lease Policy allows U.S. to give Allies help.

  48. Atlantic Charter Prime Minister Winston Churchill President Franklin Roosevelt Discuss allied goals: the right of all people to self-determination, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, free from want, and freedom from fear.