World War II • The history behind the events • The reasons behind the start of the war • The countries involved • Important people • Dates that will always be remembered
The End of World War I • World War I was fought from 1914-1918 • The war ended by a peace agreement called the Treaty of Versailles. Germany had helped start the war and they wanted to end the war. That happened with a peace treaty. • The Treaty of Versailles promised that… • Germany could not have an army. • Germany lost some of their land. • Germany had to pay to repair buildings in France and Belgium (they had the most damage)
Benito Mussolini • Many people were out of work and the government was in chaos. • Benito Mussolini terrorized his political opponents and overtook the government to become the Prime Minister of Italy. • Italy had not gained anything from World War One or the Treaty of Versailles.
Benito Mussolini • Mussolini was part of the fascist party. • The fascist party is a political party where they rule through intimidation (scaring the citizens) and violence. If someone disagrees out loud they may be thrown in prison or killed. They are a dictatorship and the leader decides how the country should be run – even if their ideas are not in the best interest of the country.
Adolf Hitler Germany experienced similar economical problems after World War I. They had lost land and were paying to repair the buildings in Belgium and France. Their government was unstable and the people were really poor. Adolf Hitler started a political group and took over as chancellor of Germany in 1933.
Adolf Hitler • Adolf Hitler was also a dictator. • Like Mussolini, Hitler ruled through intimidation and violence. • His political party was nazism. • Nazis believe that they are a superior race and that some other races should be eliminated. They targeted the Jews among other groups.
Dictators Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Dictatorship Nazi government Rules through intimidation and violence Ruler of Germany Took power in 1933. • Dictatorship • Fascist government • Rules through intimidation and violence • Ruler of Italy • Took power in 1922
The Treaty of Versailles • This was the peace treaty that stopped the first world war. • This was a promise made by the countries involved (including Germany) • Adolf Hitler decided to undue the treaty (promise).
The Treaty of Versailles • Germany was not allowed to have an army. • Land was taken away from Germany and given to France. • Hitler started building up Germany’s army. • Hitler sent his army to the area in France that they lost in the treaty. He wanted to increase Germany’s borders so they could have more “living space”.
Fascism, Communism, and Democracy • There were many different types of government in the 1930s. • Fascists and Nazis believed that they needed to be led by an all powerful leader supported by a strong military. • Communists believed that everyone should share the wealth equally. They were opposed to “capitalists” who made their own money from factories or banks.
Fascism, Communism, and Democracy Fascist government – Italy Communist government – Soviet Union Capitalists – Canada, United States, England, France…
And it Begins… • In the late 1930s, Hitler started to expand the German territory. • March 1938 - Germany swept into Austria and took over the country. • Why didn’t anybody try to stop him???
Why did they let Hitler take over? • The first world war was so terrible and so many people died. That was only 20 years earlier. The first war was called “The Great War” because it was so big and so many lives were lost. It was hoped there would never be another war again. People wanted to do everything they could to not have another war. They thought if Hitler did this, then he would be satisfied. They were WRONG!
And it continues… • In the summer of 1938 Germany put pressure on Czechoslovakia to give them part of their country. • England and France became involved and tried to stop the invasion. • Prime Minister Chamberlain of England met with Adolf Hitler in Munich. Hitler said that he would only take ‘part’ of Czecheslovakia.
And Continues… • The world was happy because we still had peace! • That changed as Hitler took over the rest of in 1939. • In August, Russia and Germany signed an agreement saying they would not attack each other. This meant that Hitler could fight a war with Europe and not have to worry about Russia attacking.
And the Invasion Continued… • On September 1, 1939 Germany attacked Poland. • Britain told Germany to pull their tanks out of Poland and Germany refused. • Sept. 3, 1939 Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declared war on Germany. • September 5, 1939 - United States proclaims its neutrality • Sept. 9, 1939 Canada joined Britain and was at war against Germany.
Poland – The Aftermath • Whether it was the Nazis or the Soviets who ruled Poland, the Polish people were treated badly. • The Polish people suffered mass murder (Jewish people), starvation, and slave labour. • The country’s large Jewish population was almost wiped out by the Nazis. • More than 6 000 000 Polish people died in World War II - 1/5 of the country’s population.
The Invasion of Poland • When Poland was attacked – nobody helped them fight. Not even England or France or any of the allied countries. • Germany was helped by the Soviet Union in the fight for Poland. • The Polish people were forced to surrender after just 4 weeks of fighting. • The land was divided up between Germany and the Soviet Union.
The Axis Keep Going… • The Soviet Union and Germany were known as the Axis forces. • In 1939 and 1940 those two countries invaded other countries in Europe. • November 30, 1939 – The Soviet Union invaded Finland. • Germany then took over two other countries…
Germany Takes Over • April 9, 1940 – Germany occupies Denmark and invades Norway. • Even though France and England sent troops and warships to help Norway – in two months Germany had won the fight! • May 10, 1940 – Germany invades Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg. • May 10, 1940 Prime Minister Chamberlain was replaced by Winston Churchill.
Winston Churchill • Winston Churchill wanted to fight Nazism. He did not want to sit back and let Hitler do what he was doing. • He gave speeches to keep the people positive in the good times and the bad times.
Winston Churchill - England • Churchill took a role in military issues. • He felt like it was a personal loss when their troops lost a battle. • He also set up meetings with leaders of other countries such as the president of the United States and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. • He was very passionate about defeating Hitler and ending the war.
The Axis Powers Get Stronger • June 10, 1940 – Italy declares war on England and France. Now they are officially part of the Axis Powers. • June 14, 1940 – German army enters France. • June 22, 1940 - France signs an armistice with Germany. This means they knew they could not win the fight and so they let Germany take over.
Battles and Alliances • June 30, 1940 - Germany begins occupation of Channel Islands. • July 10, 1940 - Start of Battle of Britain. This is when Germany bombed London for 11 weeks. • July 23, 1940 – Soviets take Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia • September 13, 1940 - Italy invades Egypt. • September 27, 1940 - Germany, Italy and Japan sign Tripartite Pact. This means that the are all part of the Axis forces and will work together.
A War on Two Continents • Now that the Italians have attacked Egypt, the war has spread to North Africa. • So, there are battles occurring in Europe and in Africa!
The Axis Gets Stronger • Oct. 7, 1940 – German troops enter Romania • Oct. 28, 1940 – Italy invades Greece • November 20, 1940 - Hungary joins the AxisPowers. • November 22, 1940 - Greeks defeat the Italian 9th Army. • November 23, 1940 - Romania joins the Axis Powers.
December 9/10 - British begin a western desert offensive in North Africa against the Italians. • January and February 1941 – British are fighting in Africa and are beating the Italians. • March 7, 1941 - British forces arrive in Greece. • April 6, 1941 - Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
Nazis Plow Through • April 17, 1941 - Yugoslavia surrenders to the Nazis. • April 27, 1941 - Greece surrenders to the Nazis. • June 22, 1941 – Germany attacks Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) • July 12, 1941 - Mutual Assistance agreement between British and Soviets. Soviets switch sides!
The Attack on the Jewish People • September 1, 1941 – Nazis order Jews to wear yellow stars. • September 3, 1941 - First experimental use of gas chambers at Auschwitz. • September 19, 1941 - Nazis take Kiev. • September 29, 1941 - Nazis murder 33,771 Jews at Kiev. • For months, the Germans attack cities in the Soviet Union.
The United States Gets Involved • December 7, 1941 - Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. • December 8, 1941 - United States and Britain declare war on Japan. • December 11, 1941 - Germany declares war on USA.
War on 3 Continents • At this point, war is going on in 3 continents at the same time! • Battles are being fought in Africa in places like Egypt and Ethiopia. • All over Europe there are battles being fought. • Now, Japan and Russia are involved meaning that Asia is also a place where people are fighting.
More Fighting, More Killing • January 13, 1942 - Germans begin a U-boat offensive along east coast of USA. • January 26, 1942 - First American forces arrive in Great Britain. • In June - Mass murder of Jews by gassing begins at Auschwitz. • July 22, 1942 - First deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to concentration camps; Treblinka extermination camp opened.
January 14-24, 1943 - Casablanca Conference between Churchill and Roosevelt. During the conference, Roosevelt announces the war can end only with "unconditional German surrender." • February 2, 1943 - Germans surrender at Stalingrad in the first big defeat of Hitler's armies.
And the Tide Turns • May 13, 1943 - German and Italian troops surrender in North Africa. • July 22, 1943 - Americans capture Palermo, Sicily. • July 25/26 - Mussolini arrested and the Italian Fascist government falls; Marshal Pietro Badoglio takes over and negotiates with Allies. • July 1943 – British air raids on Germany • August – October 1943 - Axis and Allies battle in Italy. • September 10, 1943 - Germans occupy Rome.
The Change • October 13, 1943 - Italy declares war on Germany. This means that Italy has changed sides – now they are helping the Allies. • January 6, 1944 - Soviet troops advance into Poland – this time fighting against the Axis. • March 18, 1944 - British drop 3000 tons of bombs during an air raid on Hamburg, Germany. • June 6, 1944 - D-Day landings on the northern coast of France.
Troubles For the Axis • July 20, 1944 - Assassination attempt by German Army officers against Hitler fails. • July 24, 1944 - Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdanek. • August 4, 1944 - Anne Frank and family arrested by the Gestapo in Amsterdam, Holland. • October 30, 1944 - Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz. • In April - Allies discover stolen Nazi art and wealth hidden in German salt mines
The End of the War • April 30, 1945 - Hitler commits suicide. • May 7, 1945 - German unconditional surrender. • May 8, 1945 - VE Day declared • War in Europe is over!! The war with Japan is still going on.
One War Has Ended, and Another Continues • August 6, 1945 - First atomic bomb dropped, on Hiroshima, Japan. • August 8, 1945 - Soviets declares war on Japan and invade Manchuria. • August 9, 1945 - Second atomic bomb dropped, on Nagasaki, Japan. • August 14, 1945 - Japanese agree to unconditional surrender. • September 2, 1945 - Japanese sign the surrender agreement;V-J (Victory over Japan) Day.