World War II Chapter 26, Section 2 “War in Europe”
Keys to WWII 2 fronts: Eastern and Western Be able to compare and contrast the three dictators: Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini. 3 parts to the War: 1. War in Europe (the 2 fronts) 2. War in Japan (war in the Pacific) 3. Holocaust
War in Europe “We are determined to keep out of the war, yet we cannot insure ourselves against the disastrous effects of war and the dangers of involvement.” - FDR Blitzkrieg (lightning war): Fast and powerful German army’s attack. Includes soldiers, tanks, and bombings. weakness? Think of a football blitz…
The War Expands Germany conquers Poland in less than a month. Hitler decides to attack other countries before attacking France. Denmark, Finland, Norway, Netherlands, and Belgium were taken by the Nazis. After the attack of Belgium, 300,000 allied troops were trapped. Almost every boat in England was used to bring troops back.
Allies vs. Axis Allies: U.S., France, England, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, Dutch, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, India, Mexico, Norway, Yugoslavia and Poland Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, and Hungary.
The Battle for Britain Western Europe had been conquered by Nazi Germany, the only remaining place is Britain. At night, Germans bombed important places in Britain (air bases, shipyards, and industries) People slept underground to stay safe. Nazis failed because they could not destroy Britain’s air defenses.
Never Surrender We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender” - Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Review: World War II so far… • Dictators come to power and set up totalitarian regime • Italy invades African countries • Germans invade European countries (truce with USSR) • Japan invades China • World stands by • Hitler invades Poland, Britain and France declare war • Hitler conquers most of Europe but fails at taking Britain.
Hitler breaks another promise June 1941, Hitler invades the Soviet Union (Russia, USSR) Scorched-earth: Destroy everything in order to keep resources out of the hands of the enemy. This slowed down the German soldiers
A Time of Peril Germany: · Germany had conquered most of Europe and invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. · The Soviets retreated as the Germans advanced on Moscow, burning crops and farm equipment as they went in order to keep them out of German hands.
During the German siege of Leningrad, over one million Soviets were killed.
More than half a million victims are buried at the Piskarevskoye Memorial Cemetery.
America and the War America feels: concerned, worried, cautious, with a sprinkle of isolationism. Roosevelt initiates first ever, peacetime draft. 1940, Roosevelt runs for 3rd term. After his victory, he becomes a supporter of the Allies and passes the … Lend-Lease Act: allows U.S. to sell, lend or lease weapons to any country ‘vital to (their) defense’
The Japanese Threat Japan took control of China and Indochina (France) with eyes set on East Indies (Dutch), Malaya (Britain) and Philippines (U.S.) for rubber and oil. In response to Japan’s invasions: • Freeze Japanese funds in U.S. banks • Stopped (slowed) the sail of oil and metal Fumimaro Konoye: Wanted to talk with U.S. Hideki Tojo: Planned an attack
Pearl Harbor 7:55 a.m. Sunday, December 7, 1941 “…a day that will live in infamy.” Japan’s surprise attack at Pearl Harbor (Oahu, Hawaii) • Lasted almost 2 hours (110 min) • 2 waves, 45 minutes apart Deaths: 2,300 U.S. soldiers Ships sunk or beached: 12 Airplanes destroyed: 164
U.S.S. Arizona 1,100 sailors will die on this ship A bomb hit the ammunition room. The Arizona still leaks fuel today.