World War II Unit #7 U.S. History CP 2008-2009
I. WWII Introduction: • Begins with the surprise attack by Japanese on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941 • War ends with 2 bombings by the United States on Japan: Hiroshima August 6,1945 & Nagasaki August 9, 1945.
II. Two Visions for U.S. Foreign Policy: • Imperialism: • 1890s: beginning of U.S.’s place in the world • Mutual Security: • Wilson’s vision: US. Must commit itself to mutual security with the rest of the world (Wilson lost this vision in 1919).
III. Another War • Wilson’s nightmare coming true: another WAR. • GERMANY: • After WWI: debt, lost land, psychological burden of war • Depression had hit hard: frustration boiled up in the 1930s • Hitler exploits this frustration
III. Another War (continued) • Japan: • Become industrial power in the 1930s (only one in Asia in late 19th century) • 1920s-1930s: frustration growing in Japan • Needed economic resources from elsewhere • Emperor Hirohito committed to expanding Japanese power.
III. Another War (continued) • Germany & Japan: • Military aggression • Imperial desire • Racism • FDR decided NOT to intervened. • League of Nations ineffective.
III. Another War (continued) • Civil War in China (1926- 1949): • Mao Zedong (Communists) vs. Chiang Kai-shek (Nationalists)
IV. Events Leading to the WAR: • 1931: Japan invades Manchuria (northern China) • Hoover administration did nothing although refused to acknowledge the seized territory; FDR endorses this. • League of Nations critical of aggression but ineffective • MESSAGE: other powers in the world won’t stop them.
IV. Events Leading to the WAR: • 1935: Hitler rebuild military (illegal from Treaty of Versailles) • October Italy invades Ethiopia (one of the few nations in Africa)
IV. Events Leading to the WAR: • 1936: Germany reclaimed control of Rhineland (taken away in the Treat of Versailles) • Spanish Civil War (proxy war): Germany & Italy aid Franco; Soviets support Republicans
IV. Events Leading to the WAR: • 1937: Italy (Mussolini) joins existing Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany & Japan • Japanese launch general war in China bombing Shanghai • Massacre at Nanjing.
IV. Events Leading to the WAR: • 1938: Hitler clearly dangerous (strong military, campaigns against Jews) • March: Germany declares Austria part of Germany; with tanks threatens to take Sudetenland (border between Germany & Czech • US, France & Britain could have joined to stop Germany at this point. FDR pleads with Hitler for a peaceful settlement. Hitler refuses. • September 1938: Munich Conference- Britain, France, Italy & Germany meet to discuss Sudetenland crisis. Settlement gives Sudentenland to Germany.
IV. Events Leading to the WAR: • 1939: Spring- Hitler takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia. • August: Hitler makes “nonaggression” pact with USSR (won’t attack each other; agree to divide Poland) • September: Hitler invades Poland. Britain & France declare war against Germany.
V. WAR BEGINS! Hitler’s invasion of POLAND, September 1939
V. WAR BEGINS! • 1940: • Massive attack on France (Spring) • France occupied by Germany (Summer) • Air attack on Britain, “Battle of Britain”, fear that Britain would collapse.
V. WAR BEGINS! • 1940: • July: Japan announces Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere • September: Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis pledges to resist U.S. entry into war • Late 1940: Japan took advantage of European desettlement (closed China)
V. WAR BEGINS! • Early 1941: • Japan moves aggressively in Southeast Asia (Indochina) • By summer, Japan has control of South Vietnam all the way down the coast
V. WAR BEGINS! • 1941: • Hitler broke “non-agression” pact with USSR • Late 1941: Germany moves towards Moscow
VI. U.S. Actions (pre-entry into war) • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR • Shipped massive military goods to Britain • 1940 Selective Training & Service Act (first peacetime draft in US) • Expansion of U.S. naval/air bases (1940)
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war) • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR • U.S. started sending armed convoys to protect Britain from German submarines • In response to U.S. Greer incident (Sept 1941) where German subs shoot but miss U.S. destroyer • FDR says he’ll convoy British ships all way to Iceland and begin shooting German subs.
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war) • U.S. committed itself to supporting Britain, and then USSR • “Lend-Lease” Act of 1941 (“arsenal of democracy) • Lend Britain (and other enemies of German) military goods to give back at the end of the war • U.S giving away armaments they could afford to produce and Britain could not afford to make • Also sent Lend-Lease aid to USSR after Germany invaded.
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war) • Was FDR trying to sneak U.S. into the war? • FDR wanted a fight but was hesitant because: U.S. suffered in WWI and because he didn’t want to get involved in a way with Asia • During the war, U.S. did less to stop Japan than Germany. Little to no aid was sent to China to defend themselves against Japanese.
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war) • Was FDR trying to sneak U.S. into the war? • 1940: U.S. applied economic pressure on Japan • Summer of 1941 U.S. cut off trade (embargo on fuel, oil, steel, etc.) with Japan when they invaded Indochina • U.S. was the world’s leading producer of oil at the time • Japan had no oil reserves so turned to Dutch East Indies & Philippines • Japan thought that U.S. would go to war to try to knock out their oil supply and therefore BOMBED PEARL HARBOR.
VI. U.S. Actions continued… (pre-entry into war) • FDR got Congress to declare war on Japan with only 1 dissenting vote • Germany declared war on U.S. a few days later.