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World War II

World War II. 1939-1945. I. Causes. A. Similar Causes to WWI. 1. Axis Powers. 2. Allied Powers. B. Nationalism. C. Militarism. 1. New Nazi Technologies. D. Imperialism (Axis Aggressions). 1931 Japan takes Manchuria and port of Shanghai 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia

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World War II

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  1. World War II 1939-1945

  2. I. Causes

  3. A. Similar Causes to WWI

  4. 1. Axis Powers

  5. 2. Allied Powers

  6. B. Nationalism

  7. C. Militarism

  8. 1. New Nazi Technologies

  9. D. Imperialism (Axis Aggressions) • 1931 Japan takes Manchuria and port of Shanghai • 1935 Italy invades Ethiopia • 1936 Germany retakes Saar Valley (Rhineland) • 1938 Germany annexes Austria • 1938 Munich Conference- Germany gains Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia

  10. Aggressions cont’d • 1937 Japan invades China • 1939 Germany takes rest of Czechoslovakia • 1936-39 Germany helps Spanish fascists in Spanish Civil War- Franco comes to power. • 1939 Hitler and Stalin sign Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact • September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland. World War II officially starts.

  11. II. Axis on the Offensive

  12. A. Germany 1939-1942 • Blitzkrieg tactics • By Fall of 1940, Germany had conquered most of western Europe. • Began the “Blitz” of Britain to try and remove them from the war. • June 1941 Germany violated Non-Aggression Pact and invaded Russia (Operation Barbarossa)

  13. B. Japan 1937-1942 • 1937 Invaded China • 1941 Bombed Pearl Harbor/ Invaded Philippines and Vietnam • 1942 Invaded Singapore and islands south to New Guinea thus threatening Australia • 1942 Also took some Aleutian Islands (US territory)

  14. C. Axis Successes by 1942 • Held all of western and most of eastern Europe • Controlled most of the Mediterranean area • North Africa • Most of China and Southeast Asia • Controlled large areas of Russia

  15. III. Allied Turning Points 1942-44 • 1942 Battle of Midway • Partisans in Europe • August 1942 Stalingrad • Spring 1943 US and British forces defeat Germany in North Africa • August 1943 Invade Sicily • Fall of 1943 Invade Italy • Summer 1943 Battle of Kursk • June 6, 1944 Normandy Invasion • Winter 1944 Battle of the Bulge

  16. IV. “V” is for Victory

  17. A. Allied Victory Europe • After the battles of the Bulge and Kursk, the German army was on the run. • Massive Allied bombing of Germany in 1944 and 1945 • Hitler commits suicide in April 1945 as Soviets enter Berlin.

  18. B. Allied Victory Japan • After Midway, General Douglas MacArthur begins “island hopping” campaign. • By Spring of 1945, Allied forces had recaptured most of Pacific and after battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa could now launch bombing raids on Japan. • August 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki destroyed by atomic bombs.

  19. V. Conferences • 1941 Atlantic- Churchill and Roosevelt meet to set war aims • 1943 Tehran- Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill meet to discuss opening second front in Europe and to agree to cooperate in war effort. • Feb. 1945 Yalta- Big Three meet again to discuss post war Europe, UN creation, agreement to defeat Japan together. • July 1945 Potsdam- Big Three (Truman now president of US) re-affirm Yalta agreements, US hints at atomic bomb development.

  20. VI. Results of WWII • 2191 days of warfare • 17 million soldiers killed • 44 million civilians killed-12 million in Nazi death camps • Most expensive war in history • United Nations formed • 2 power world emerges- US vs. USSR • Cold War begins

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