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World War II

World War II

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World War II

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  1. World War II Review Created By: Michael Crews

  2. Precursors • Fascism and Militarism in Central Europe • Japanese invasion of Manchuria and China • Rise of Nazism in Germany • Invasion of Ethiopia by Italy • Invasion of Poland and subsequent “Blitzkrieg” by Germany

  3. Early U.S. Involvement • Roosevelt asked Congress to revise the previous neutrality acts • Wanted to aid the allies but not fully enter the war • Developed the Neutrality Act of 1939 • Sold war martials on a cash and carry basis • Lend-Lease policy followed • Military supplies could be loaned or leased to countries considered vital to American defense • Had to deal with German U-boats in the Eastern Atlantic • Atlantic Charter – between Roosevelt and Churchill • An agreement end Nazi tyranny • Develop self-rule for all people • Disarmament • International economic cooperation • Freedom of the seas

  4. U.S Goes to War • Pearl Harbor • Surprise attack on U.S. Navy by Japanese at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941 • The U.S. declares war on Japan the next day • Subsequently, Germany and Italy declare war the U.S. • Battle of Coral Sea • Halted Japanese advances in the South Pacific • Battle of Midway • U.S. destroyed 4 aircraft carriers • Japan never won a significant battle in the Pacific for the rest of the War • D-Day June 6, 1944 • Allied invasion of Europe • Marked the beginning of the end for Hitler • Battle of the Bulge • Americans resisted a massive counter attack by the Germans • Broke the German lines and advanced toward Berlin, Germany

  5. Ending the War • In Europe the Allies surrounded Berlin, Germany • Hitler committed suicide in an underground bunker on April 30, 1945 • Russians take Berlin May 2 • Germany surrenders unconditionally within the week • In Japan the United States drops two atomic bombs on Japan • Hiroshima August 6, 1945 • Nagasaki August 9, 1945 • Japan surrendered unconditionally on September 2, 1945

  6. World War II Home Front • Economically • Government initiated price and wage controls • Worked with labor unions to reduce slowdowns in production • Government issued War Bonds to pay for increased spending • Rationing of supplies was instituted to address shortages • Gasoline, sugar, meat, rubber, nylon • Many people grew ‘Victory Gardens’ to save even more food • Politically • Many New Deal programs were reduced or eliminated • Roosevelt chose Harry S. Truman to be his running mate in 1944 • Women’s role • Women filled the workplace void left by men off fighting in the war • Rosie the Riveter

  7. Ethnic Issues During the War • African Americans • African Americans migrated to urban centers to gain employment in the factories • Several joined the military, although it was segregated until 1940 • The Tuskegee Airmen were a decorated unit of all black pilots • Double V Campaign • ‘victory abroad and victory at home’ related to civil-rights issues • Native Americans • Navajo Indians became ‘Code-Talkers’ in the Pacific Campaign • Japanese Americans • After Pearl Harbor, many face discrimination • Roosevelt authorized the ‘internment’ of all Japanese Americans in relocation centers • The Supreme Court upheld the order in 1944