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Adolescent Development

Adolescent Development

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Adolescent Development

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  1. Adolescent Development 12 - 18 years

  2. Developmental tasks of adolescence Achieving • Newer and more mature relations with members of both sexes • A masculine or feminine role • Emotional independence of parents and adults • Some assurance of economic independence

  3. Tasks • Accepting one’s physique and using the body effectively • Selecting and preparing for an occupation • Preparing for marriage and family life • Developing intellectual skills and concepts for civic competence • Desiring and achieving socially responsible behaviour • Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behaviour

  4. Four categories of tasks • Identity – answering the question ”Who am I”? • Connectedness – establishing relationship with peers • Power – development of a sense of control and power. • Hope / joy – achieved when first 3 categories are accomplished

  5. Teenage Girls Early Adolescence • 10-11 years- is the onset of a growth spurt. • 11-12 years- both breast and pubic hair development occurs. • 12-14 years- is the onset of Menarche (age range can be 9-17). • 15-16 years - the completion of breast development (age range can be 13-18).

  6. Teenage Boys • 12-13years - growth of testes, development of public hair. • 14years - deepening of the voice. • 15-16years - the production of mature sperm , nocturnal emissions , facial hair. • 17-18years - development of chest hair and maturation of the skeletal system

  7. Tanner’s Stages Pubertal development

  8. Girls - breast development • Stage 1: Prepubertal • Stage 2: Breast bud stage with elevation of breast and papilla; enlargement of areola • Stage 3: Further enlargement of breast and areola; no separation of their contour • Stage 4: Areola and papilla form a secondary mound above level of breast • Stage 5: Mature stage: projection of papilla only, related to recession of areola

  9. Boys - development of external genitalia • Stage 1: Prepubertal • Stage 2: Enlargement of scrotum and testes; scrotum skin reddens and changes in texture • Stage 3: Enlargement of penis (length at first); further growth of testes • Stage 4: Increased size of penis with growth in breadth and development of glans; testes and scrotum larger, scrotum skin darker • Stage 5: Adult genitalia

  10. Boys and girls - pubic hair • Stage 1: Prepubertal (can see velus hair similar to abdominal wall) • Stage 2: Sparse growth of long, slightly pigmented hair, straight or curled, at base of penis or along labia • Stage 3: Darker, coarser and more curled hair, spreading sparsely over junction of pubes • Stage 4: Hair adult in type, but covering smaller area than in adult; no spread to medial surface of thighs • Stage 5:Adult in type and quantity, with horizontal distribution ("feminine")

  11. Boys Growth • Stage 1: 5-6cm/year • Stage 2: 5-6cm/year • Stage 3: 7-8cm/year • Stage 4: 10cm/year • Stage 5: No further height increase after 17 years

  12. Girls Growth • Stage 1: 5-6cm/year • Stage 2: 7-8cm/year • Stage 3: 8cm/year • Stage 4: 7cm/year • Stage 5: No further height after 16 years

  13. Psychosocial and Emotional development • Early Adolescents develop a strong sense of belonging to groups ( Social Identity). • Later Adolescents are concerned with their own individuality ( Personal Identity). • Early adolescence sees the move from Concrete to Formal Operational thinking

  14. The Ego • Early Adolescents sometimes develop intense investment into their own thoughts and conclude that they alone are having these problems -Personal Fable • Can also think they are the centre of interest for others, which can lead to self-consciousness, embarrassment and showing off -Imaginary Audience • (Elkind, 1967)

  15. Conformity and a sense of belonging • 13-14 year olds Are very susceptible to peer pressure and peer approval, Group identity versus alienation. • 14-16 year olds Learn to resist peer pressure Research overall demonstrates that time spent in positive interactions with parents always reduces negative consequences for young people