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Adolescent Development

Adolescent Development

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Adolescent Development

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  1. Adolescent Development Psychology 242 Professor Jean Rhodes

  2. Adolescence in a Changing Population • There are about 40 million 10-19 year olds in the U.S. • 14% of population • Average age of parents is about 35 • 27% of all children under 18 live with one parent (mostly mothers) • 29% Hispanic • 53% African American • 16% of children under 18 live below poverty

  3. Today’s Adolescents Actual and Projected Number of U.S. Adolescents Aged 10-19, 2000-2100 Fig. 1.2

  4. Developmental Changes are a Result of Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Development Processes Fig. 1.3

  5. Development Processes Biological processes Physical changes within an individual’s body. Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes

  6. Development Processes Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Cognitive processes Changes in thinking and intelligence.

  7. Development Processes Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Socioemotional processes Changes in relationships, emotions, personality, and social contexts.

  8. Adolescence 242 • Assignments: • Natural observation or flim clip (20%) • Midterm and Final examinations (35% midterm, 40% final).: Multiple-choice, short answer, and short essay exam take will include questions about topics from the class. To do well, you will want to have studied information from class presentations and discussions, from readings, and from your observations. • Attendance, reading, participation (5%)

  9. Periods of Development • Childhood • Prenatal Period • Infancy • Early Childhood • Middle and Late Childhood

  10. Periods of Development • Adolescence • Early Adolescence • Late Adolescence

  11. Periods of Development • Adulthood • Early Adulthood • Middle Adulthood • Late Adulthood

  12. Adolescence & Early Adulthood • Early adolescence • 11-15 • Late adolescence • 18-19 • Early adulthood • 19-30

  13. Historical Perspective • The 20th Century • G. Stanley Hall’s Storm-and-Stress View • Margaret Mead’s Sociocultural View

  14. Myth of Storm and Stress • Most youth do not experience a stormy adolescence • Those who do, often exhibit problems throughout childhood • Adolescence is generally a time of continued positive relations with parents, and most adopt their parents’ values

  15. Theories of Adolescence: G Stanley Hall • Recapitulation Theory: • life-span changes mirror evolutionary changes of humans from ape-like to civilized. • First person to present a scientific theroy of developoment that thought of adolescence as a distinct portion of the life span • A period of transition from being “beastlike” to being “humanlike” • Based on a misunderstanding of Darwinian theory

  16. Theory • An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictions

  17. Id Superego Ego Psychoanalytic theories • Freud Personality Structure

  18. Psychoanalytic Freud • Defense Mechanisms • Unconscious methods the ego uses to distort reality and protect itself from anxiety • Examples: Repression and Regression

  19. Psychoanalytic Freud Fig. 2.1

  20. Psychoanalytic Revisions of Freud’s Theories • Less emphasis on sexual motivations • More emphasis on social aspirations

  21. Psychoanalytic Fig. 2.3 (Continued…)

  22. Psychoanalytic (Continued from previous slide)

  23. Cognitive Piaget Fig. 2.4

  24. Cognitive Vygotsky • Cognitive skills are mediated by words, language, and forms of discourse • Cognitive skills have their origins in social relations

  25. Cognitive Information Processing Theory • How information is: • Perceived • Encoded • Represented • Stored • Retrieved

  26. Behavioral Skinner • The scientific study of observable behavior responses and their environmental determinants • Behavior is learned and often changes according to environmental experience

  27. Social Cognitive Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Fig. 2.5

  28. Ecological, Contextual Bronfenbrenner • Microsystem • Mesosystem • Exosystem • Macrosystem

  29. Bronfenbrenner • Levels

  30. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation Eclectic Theoretical Orientation • Not following any one theoretical approach, but rather selecting from each theory whatever is considered the best in it