Physical • Adolescent Growth Spurts: • Girls 10 - 12 • Boys 13 – 15 • Puberty: Developmental changes to allow reproduction • Primary Sexual Characteristics – Ovaries and Testes • Secondary Sexual Characteristics – facial hair, body growth
Physical • Girls will see a rise in estrogen. • Monthly periods • Changes in the shapes in hips • Body Hair • Boy will have a rise in Testosterone. • Body and Facial Hair • Deepening voices • Broader shoulders and Thicker bodies
Early Maturation • Boys who mature early – much more confident and typically will be more popular as they grow older. • Does not mean they are more emotionally/mentally mature. • Girls who mature earlier typically are more awkward. • Also face the problem, that older boys will see them as more mature. • May give into peer pressure more often.
Social • Relationship with Parents: • Want Independence (still familial loyalty) • Leads to bickering • Less time with family more with friends • Typically share similar ideals on social, political, religious, and economic views. • Tend to spend more time with moms (considered more supportive)
Social • Peers: • One or two “best friends” • Loyalty • Chose friends who are similar in age, background, educational goals, and/or attitude. • Cliques • Crowds • Peer Pressure/Peer Approval • Dating • Younger: casual, short-lived
Identity • Erikson believes in the necessity of creating an Identity. • Experimenting with different values, beliefs, roles, and relationships. • May lead to difficulty with commitment and confusion. • Identity Crisis happens when a adolescent evaluates their values and decisions.
James Marcia • Identity Crisis happens when a teenager faces a decision about their future work, morals, religious commitment, or political beliefs. • Created identity status – reaction patters or processes.
Identity • Identity Moratorium – delay of making commitments about important questions. • Identity Foreclosure – Make a commitment that shuts out other possibilities. • Identity Diffusion – Constantly searching for meaning in life and for identity because they have not committed themselves to a belief set or occupational path. • Identity Achievement – Coped with crisis and explored their options.
Challenges • Eating disorders: • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia Nervosa • Substance Abuse: • Drugs • Alcohol • Peer Pressure • Sexuality: • How to express sexual feelings • Teen Parents • Homosexuality • Juvenile Delinquency • Juvenile Delinquency v. Status Offenses.
Reasoning and Avoidance • Reasons for behavior: • Difficult Relationships • Low Self-esteem • Unclear goals of future • Peer Pressure • Behavior Issues • Problems at home • Avoiding: • Clear goals for the future • Someone to confide in • Strong Relationships • JOIN A GROUP/CLUB/SPORT/ACTIVITY