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Adolescent Development

Adolescent Development

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Adolescent Development

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  1. Adolescent Development EDHD 5003 Summer 2010 Kelly Schmieg, Michelle Heidt, Ashley Davis

  2. Cognitive Development The information-processing approach Critical thinking and decision making Psychometric approach Brain development

  3. The Information Process Approach • Views cognitive change as continuous • Components of the thinking process: attention and memory • Attention • Information process begins with stimulus information that enters the senses, much of the information is not processed further (i.e. selective attention) • Capacities for selective attention and divided attention improve during adolescence • Better able to focus on important information while tuning out irrelevant information (1)

  4. The Information Process Approach • The Selective Attention Test • • The first time, count how many times the ball is passed between people in white shirts. • The second time, do not keep count of passes. Just watch. See anything? • This is an example of how we are good at selecting what information is important to pay attention to and what is not (2)

  5. The Information Process Approach • Memory • Key part of the process • Needed to call back upon the information you processed • Short-term memory • Memory for the information that is currently the focus of your attention • Example: remembering a 7-digit phone number just long enough to call • Long-term memory • Memory for information that is in long-term storage • Can draw upon it even after your attention is no longer focused on it • Example: remembering what you received for your birthday 5 years ago (1)

  6. Critical Thinking & Decision Making • Critical thinking: more thanmemorizing • Includes: • Analyzing • Making judgments about the meaning • Relating it to other information • Considering if the information is valid or invalid • Does not develop automatically in adolescence • The need for an educational environment that promotes and values critical thinking (1) (

  7. Using critical thinking to gain knowledge and understanding (3)

  8. Critical Thinking & Decision Making • Decision Making • Can adolescents make competent decisions? • Competence in the decision making process varies with age • Few differences have been found when comparing the decision-making process of late adolescents and adults • But, they may evaluate consequences differently (1) (

  9. Psychometric Approach • Definition: trying to understand human cognition by evaluatingcognitive abilities with intelligence testing • Intelligence testing • Goal: focus on how individuals differ in their cognitive abilities (1) (

  10. Psychometric Approach • IQ Tests • Alfred Binet • Developed the first intelligence test in 1905 • Stanford-Binet • Revision of Binet’s test • Includes verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short-term memory • Wechsler scales • WISC-III for children aged 6-16 • WAIS-III for individuals aged 16 and up • Results provide Verbal IQ and Performance IQ (1)

  11. Brain Development in Adolescence (

  12. Brain Development in Adolescence • Overproduction • Ages 10-12 • Thickening of synaptic connections • Synaptic pruning • Follows overproduction • Use it or lose it  synapse that are used stay, those that are not whither away • Allows brain to work more efficiently (1) • Cerebellum • Part of the lower brain that grows during adolescence and into adulthood • Important for basic functions and higher functions: • Movement • Mathematics • Music • Decision making • Social skills (1)

  13. Works Cited • Arnett, J. J. (2007). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing. • Simons, D., & Chabris, C. (1999). Selective attention test. Retrieved from http://www. v=vJG698U2Mvo&feature=player_embedded • Using critical thinking to gain knowledge and understanding. (2009). Retrieved from /Resources/nursing/Critical%20thinking/Critical%20thinking.htm

  14. Social Development Family and Friends Friends Influence and Peer Pressure Cliques and Crowds Youth Culture (

  15. Family and Friends • Beginning in adolescence, friendships become more important • Adolescents report that they are happiest when with their friends • Among 9th -12th grade American adolescents, their moods are more positive on the weekend, when they are most likely to be spending leisure time with friends (1) (

  16. Family and Friends Preadolescence Adolescence More time spent with family Talk to friends about shared activities Most important basis for friendship is similarities (i.e. location, shared activities) (1) More time spent with friends Talk to friends about important issues Most important basis for friendship is similarities (i.e. ethnicity, participation in risk behavior, educational orientation) (1)

  17. Friends Influence & Peer Pressure • Idea of friends’ influence is more correct than peer pressure • Peers are a group of people who an individual may not be close to, thus do not have much influence • Friends are emotionally and socially important to adolescence, thus have more influence • Friends’ influence can be positive or negative (1) (

  18. Friends Influence & Peer Pressure Negative Influence from Friends (2) Positive Influence from Friends (2) Leads to anti-social behavior Leads to delinquent behavior Conflicts between friends has negative effects on other people too Risky behavior Increases social skills Improves ability to cope with stressful events Friends have positive characteristics that produce positive behaviors Companionship Support

  19. Cliques and Crowds • Cliques: • Primary base of group interaction • Comprised of 5-10 members • Members tend to be the same sex • Have strong influence over attitudes and behaviors of members • Membership can have positive effect on self-esteem, but exclusion has negative effect • Attempts to use cliques for academic purposes have been unsuccessful (3) (

  20. Cliques and Crowds • Crowds • Larger, reputation-based groups • Not necessarily friends or spend a lot of time together • Examples: • Preppies, jocks, brains, burnouts, dirties, gothic, nobodies, normals • Within each crowd, there are cliques and close friends (1) (

  21. Youth Culture • Definition: the idea that young people, as a whole, constitute a group separate from children and adults • Distinguished by values and style • Style of youth culture: • Image = dress, hairstyle and other aspects of appearance • Demeanor = forms of gesture, gait, and posture • Argot = certain way of speaking (1) (

  22. Youth Culture Youth Culture Values: Adult Society Values: Hedonism Seeking pleasure Irresponsibility Excitement Adventure Rite of passage, not temporary (1) Emphasize regular routine Delay of gratification Acceptance of responsibility Can only express excitement and adventure in “restricted forms of leisure” (1)

  23. Works Cited • Arnett, J. J. (2007). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing. • Berndt, T.J. (1992).Friendships and friends influence in adolescence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1,156-159. • Youniss, J. &Haynie, D.L. (1992). Friendship in adolescence. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13, 59-66.

  24. Self Development Self Esteem The Emotional Self Identity Identity and Globalization (

  25. Self Esteem •  Self-esteem: an individual’s overall sense of self worth   • Closely related terms of how we view our selves: • Self-image • Self-concept • Self-perception • Having acceptance and approval from friends and loved one is what gives most adolescents more self-esteem • Most adolescents will see a rise in self-esteem by early adulthood (1) (

  26. Self Esteem • Jennifer D. Campbell, Barry Chew, and Linda S. Scratchley of the University of British Columbia break self-esteem into two parts: • “Conceptually, the self can be viewed as having both a cognitive and an evaluative component. The cognitive component or self-concept is an organized schema that contains concrete and semantic memories about the self and controls the processing of self-relevant information. The evaluative component of self-esteem is the positivity of the resultant attitude when the self is viewed as an object of evaluation. Both components can be conceptualized as states or traits”(3)

  27. The Emotional Self • Adolescence is a time of high emotions and the confrontation of understanding and controlling these emotions • “Self-consciousness” and “embarrassment” are the two most common feelings of this age according to a survey done by Larson and Richards in 1994 (1) (

  28. The Emotional Self • The “Focus Adolescent Services” group says • “The teenage years are a time of transition from childhood into adulthood.  Teens often struggle with being dependent on their parents while having a strong desire to be independent.  Ideally, they are maturing from the one-sided self-centeredness of childhood to a self-identity that balances responsible self-interest with care and love for others” (2)

  29. The Emotional Self • When young people think about who they are, what they want to be, and start forming opinions about beliefs, and the world they are forming their identity (1) (

  30. Identity • Erick Erickson is responsible formuch about what we know about adolescent development • During the fifth crisis; identity versus identity confusion (ages 13-20) the adolescent learns how to answer satisfactorily and happily the question of "Who am I?" But even some adjusted adolescents experience some role identity diffusion: most boys and most girls will experience delinquency, rebellion flourishes, self-doubts, and so on (1)

  31. Identity and Globalization Hybrid Identity: the combination of local and global culture (1) (

  32. Identity and Globalization 2 Main Aspects of Globalized Identity: • Bicultural Identity; half of their identity lies in local culture while the other half is their consciousness of their connection to the global culture • Identity of the Global Economy; success in the intense world of everchanging technology while maintaining relations to family and personal beliefs • “Many cultures are being modified by globalization, specifically by the introduction of global media, free market economies, democratic institutions, increased length of formal schooling and delayed entry into marriage and parenthood” (1)

  33. Works Cited • Arnett, J. J. (2007). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach.(3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.   • Emotional health. (2008). Retrieved from • Chew, B., Campbell, J., & Scratchley, L. (1990). Cognitive and emotional reactions to daily. Journal of Personality, 59(3), 473-505.

  34. Physical Development The Endocrine System Order of Pubertal Events Cultural Responses to Puberty Social and Personal Responses to Puberty

  35. The Endocrine System • The endocrine system is made up of glands in different regions of the body • The glands release hormones into the bloodstream and from there affect the development and control of the body (1)

  36. The Endocrine System • “The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the body's long-distance messengers or hormones. The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism, as well as sexual function and reproductive processes” (2) (

  37. The Order of Pubertal Events • There is variability in terms of the timing of pubertal development • The first signs of puberty can be seen as early as age 8 for females and 9 for males (1) (

  38. Order of Pubertal Events Sequence of Pubertal Events in Females (4) Event : Initial breast development  First wisps of pubic hair  Growth spurt Breast growth midway Breast growth mostly completed First menstruation Pubic hair adult distribution Skeletal growth completed Final breast development Average Age in Years 11 11 ¼ 12 ¼ 12 ¼ 13 13 14 ½ 14 ½ 15 ¼

  39. Order of Pubertal Events Sequence of Pubertal Events in Males (4) Event : Initial testicular growth Early growth of pubic hair  Enlargement of penis begins Temporary breast development Voice cracking begins Growth spurt Hair in armpits Wet dreams Adult voice attained Moustache begins to appear Whiskers appear  Average Age in Years: 11 ¾ 12 13 13 13 13 ½ 14 14 15 15 16

  40. Cultural Response to Puberty • Many cultures throughout the world view puberty as an important transition from childhood to adolescence (1) (

  41. Cultural Response to Puberty • Puberty Rituals: • “Ritual action by means of which the initiate is ‘separated´ from one ‘world’ and taken into another. Rites of passage are performed on special occasions and mainly deal with entering a new stage of life” (3)

  42. Social &Personal Responses to Puberty • The social environments of those in adolescence respond to the physical changes they are experiencing that represent puberty and sexual maturity • Distancing Hypothesis: many young people will move away emotionally from their parents in order to reach sexual maturity • Pheromones: airborne chemicals that are produced by sweat glands • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS): behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms of pre-menstruation • Semenarche: first male ejaculation (1)

  43. Social &Personal Responses to Puberty • Parents and adolescentsboth have to adjust to changes that take place during puberty • Culture and biology play a large role in how young people react and feel about changes that take place during adolescence • Those who mature faster than most are often unprepared for puberty (1) (

  44. Works Cited • Arnett, J. J. (2007). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing. • The Human Body . Net, . (n.d.). The Endocrine system. Retrieved from • Prevos, P., (2001). Initiation and rites of passage., 1-4. • Mass general hospital for children is a primary pediatric teaching site for the Harvard medical school. (2010). Retrieved from