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Adolescent Development

Adolescent Development

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Adolescent Development

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  1. Adolescent Development *Developed by the Center for School Mental Health (http://csmh.umaryland.edu) in collaboration with the Maryland School Mental Health Alliance

  2. Introduction • Adolescents make up approximately 36-40 million people in the US (13.9%) ¹ • The term adolescence comes from the Latin verb adolescere, which means “to go into adulthood.” • Transition between childhood and adulthood • From about the ages of 11-19 • Adolescence is a period of rapid physical, cognitive, sexual, social and emotional changes. • It is an adjustment period for the adolescent, their parents, and those who are in frequent contact with them. Physical Sexual Cognitive Emotional Social ¹ http://nahic.ucsf.edu//downloads/Demographics.pdf CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  3. Simple Facts • Highlights ²: • The U.S. adolescent population is rapidly growing. • The adolescent population is more racially/ethnically diverse than • the general population. • The Hispanic and Asian populations are expected to increase 10% • by the year 2025 • Black and Hispanic youth experience poverty at a higher rate than • their peers ² http://nahic.ucsf.edu//downloads/Demographics.pdf CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  4. More Facts • More adolescents live in suburbs than in rural areas and central cities. • Two thirds of adolescents ages 12-17 live with both parents. • Maryland’s Grade 8 Reading level is slightly higher than the national average. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/stateprofiles/sresult.asp?mode=short&s1=24 • Between 2001–02 and 2013–14, the number of high school graduates is projected to increase nationally by 10 percent. The state of Maryland is projected to have a 6.6 % increase. Institute of Educational Services CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  5. Important Statistics • Young Americans between the ages of 13 and 24 are still contracting HIV at the rate of 2 per hour. Office of Natural AIDS Policy • Every year 3 million teens--about 1 in 4 sexually active teens -- get a sexually transmitted disease (STD). American Social Health Administration • One-third of all smokers had their first cigarette by the age of 14.  Ninety percent of all smokers begin before the age of 21. American Lung Association • Individuals who begin drinking before the age of 15 are four times more likely to become alcohol dependent than those who begin drinking at age 21. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University • Suicide is the third leading cause of death among youths ages 15 to 20.National Center for Health Statistics CSMH-MSMHA 2006 http://www.sadd.org/stats.htm

  6. What is “normal” difficult behavior? Developmental Goal during Adolescence: The child develops self identity and the capacity for intimacy. “Normal” Difficult Behavior • Moodiness • Less affection shown to parents • Greatly influenced by peers • Preoccupation with sex • Masturbation • Very occasional experimentation with cigarettes or alcohol • Extremely self-involved • Self- conscious • Involvement with cliques Cries for Help • Regular use of alcohol and/or other drugs • Sexual promiscuity • Lying or stealing • Destructive or delinquent behavior • Poor school behavior • Persistent Negative attitude • Frequent temper outbursts • Extreme fear of leaving home • Self- Mutilation • Suicidal ideas or suicide attempt http://www.health-ed-consultants.org/core.htm CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  7. What can we do? • Knowledge about what changes and behaviors during adolescence are normal can go a long way in helping both teens and adults manage the transition successfully: • Don’t criticize or compare teens to others • Encourage them to get enough sleep • Model and encourage healthy eating habits and physical activities • Be understanding about their needs for space and privacy • Provide honest and accurate information about sex • Be patient of excessive time spent grooming CSMH-MSMHA 2006 http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.html

  8. Ten Tips for Parents • Educate yourself about adolescent development. • Talk to your children about the changes that they will experience during this time. • Create an atmosphere of respect, trust and honesty. • Put your self in your child’s place. Sharing your experiences as a teen may help your child. • Pick your battles. Ask yourself, “Is this battle worth fighting?” Adapted from Kid Smart PACE (Parenting and Consumer Education) Retrieved November 2, 2006 CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  9. Ten Tips for Parents • Maintain your level of expectations for your teen. Don’t write off negative behavior with “He’s just a teen” • Know your teen’s friends and keep track of their activities. • Know the warning signs when risky behavior becomes dangerous behavior. • Respect your teen’s privacy. You have a right to know what is going on with your teen but give him/her a little space. • Set boundaries and make rules that are appropriate. Adapted from: Kid Smart PACE (Parenting and Consumer Education) Retrieved November 2, 2006 CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  10. Adolescent Development CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  11. Physical Development • Onset of puberty begins the physical development of children • Puberty should take 3-6 years to complete • Growth Spurt • Secondary sex characteristics develop • Menstruation and hormonal changes • Teens may sleep more • Exercise to reinforce learning http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.htm l CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  12. Cognitive Development • Adolescence appears to begin with a series of changes in cognitive ability • Thinking and reasoning • Developing abstract thinking skills. • Systematic searching for solutions http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.html CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  13. Cognitive Development • Ability to reason about hypothetical problems • Intellectual interests expand and gain in importance • Developing the ability to think about thinking in a process known as "meta-cognition • Think about how they feel and what they are thinking http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.html CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  14. Social Development • Greater autonomy and less dependence on parents. • Need increased age-appropriate independence and freedom • Parental support is still necessary • Relationship with parents changes in three ways: 1. As cognitive ability increases, their perceptions of parents change. Now, view them as individuals as well as parents 2. Less time is spent with parents and families 3. More conflict with parents http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.html CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  15. Social Development • More intimate relationships with peers • As less time is spent with family, peers become important during this time • Beginnings of establishing an identity • Reason in adult terms about moral issues and values http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.html CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  16. Central tasks in psychosocial development of the adolescent • Autonomy from parents and family • Variations in parental behavior is necessary (value autonomy and disciplined will) • Establishing satisfying peer relationships and friendships. Learning intimacy. • Relationships with peers serve as prototypes for adult relationships • Peers provide emotional support http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.html CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  17. Psychosocial development • Develop an identity • Separate, distinct individual • Consistency between one’s own and other people’s perceptions of one’s identity. • Develop skills at moral reasoning • Question social and political beliefs of adults • Personal values and opinions become less absolute • Political thought is less authoritarian CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  18. Movement towards Independence Middle School to Early High School Years • Struggle with sense of identity • Feeling awkward or strange about one’s self and one’s body • Focus on self, alternating between high expectations and poor self-esteem • Interests and clothing style influenced by peers • Moodiness • Improved ability to express one’s self • Identification of parents faults • Less overt affections shown to parents • Complaints of parental interference • Tendency to return to childish behavior www.aacap.orgFacts for families- Normal Adolescent Behavior CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  19. Sexuality Middle School to Early High School Years • Displays shyness, blushing and modesty • Girls develop physically sooner than boys • Increased interest in sex • Movement towards heterosexuality with fears of homosexuality • Concerns regarding physical and sexual attractiveness to others • Frequently changing relationships www.aacap.orgFacts for families- Normal Adolescent Behavior CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  20. Morals, Values, and Self Direction Middle School to Early High School Years • Rule and limit testing • Capacity for abstract thought • Development of ideals and selection of role models • More consistent evidence of conscience • Experimentation with sex and drugs www.aacap.orgFacts for families- Normal Adolescent Behavior CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  21. Movement towards Independence Late high school years and beyond • Increased independent functioning • Firmer and more cohesive sense of identity • Examination of inner experiences • Ability to think ideas through • Conflict with parents begins to decrease • Increased ability for delayed gratification and compromise • Increased emotional stability • Increased concerns for others • Increased self –reliance • Peer relationships remain important and take an appropriate place among other interests www.aacap.orgFacts for families- Normal Adolescent Behavior CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  22. Sexuality Late high school years and beyond • Feelings of love and passion • Development of more serious relationships • Firmer sense of sexual identity • Increased capacity for tender and sensual love www.aacap.orgFacts for families- Normal Adolescent Behavior CSMHA-MSMHA 2006

  23. Morals, Values, and Self Direction Late high school years and beyond • Greater capacity for setting goals • Interest in moral reasoning • Capacity to use insight • Increased emphasis on personal dignity and self-esteem • Social and cultural traditions regain some of their previous importance www.aacap.orgFacts for families- Normal Adolescent Behavior CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  24. Risk Taking • All teens take risks as a normal part of growing up. It is a tool to define and develop an identity. Healthy risk taking is a valuable experience. • Healthy adolescent risk-taking behaviors have a positive impact on an adolescent's development and can include participation is sports, the development of artistic and creative abilities, travel, running for school office and others.. • Unhealthy risk-taking may appear to be a rebellion. This is normal for this age group. • Red flags are persistent psychological problems, trouble at school, engaging in illegal activities and excessive unhealthy risk taking. Ponton, L. (1997). The Romance of Risk: Why Teenagers Do the Things they do. Basic Books CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  25. Unhealthy Risk Taking Dangerous dieting and eating disorders Using drugs and alcohol Running away, staying out all night Unprotected sexual activity Gang violence, weapons, bullying, or scapegoating Stealing, shoplifting Healthy Alternatives Physical activities such as sports Extreme outdoor activities with appropriate guidance (white water rafting, rock climbing..) Creative arts, developing hobbies Open communication, talking about sex Volunteering, participating in student exchange program, seeking out new friends Part-time job, involvement in community activities Risk Taking Healthy risk-taking is a positive tool in an adolescent's life for discovering, his or her identity. http://www.middleweb.com/adolesrisk.html#anchor19230099 CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  26. CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  27. References National Adolescent Health Information Center. (2003). Fact Sheet on Demographics: Adolescents.San Francisco, CA: Author, University of California, San Francisco. http://nahic.ucsf.edu//downloads/Demographics.pdf Ponton, L. (1997). The Romance of Risk: Why Teenagers Do the Things they do. Basic Books http://www.middleweb.com/adolesrisk.html#anchor19230099 Facts for families- Normal Adolescent Development I&II www.aacap.org http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/350-850/350-850.html www.childtrendsdatabank.org http://fcs.tennessee.edu/humandev/kidsmart/parentingAdolescents.pdf http://www.health-ed-consultants.org/core.htm CSMH-MSMHA 2006

  28. *Developed by the Center for School Mental Health (http://csmh.umaryland.edu) in collaboration with the Maryland School Mental Health Alliance