Feudalism SSWH7 The student will analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics. a. Explain the manorial system and feudalism; include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne.
Charlemagne • 600 & 700’s, Frankish kings lost their power to the chief officers of the king’s household = mayor’s of the palace • Pepin assumed the kingship • Pepin’s son became king after his death in 768 = son was Charles the Great – Charlemagne • Charlemagne = one of history’s great kings/ curious, driven, intelligent, strong warrior, devout Christian/ was illiterate, but strongly supported learning • Ruled from 768 to 814/ Expanded the Frankish kingdom into Carolingian empire = covered much of western & central Europe
Charlemagne • Charlemagne established missidominci(messengers of the lord king) two men who were sent to make for sure the kings wishes were followed • 800, he was crowned emperor of the Romans/ the coronation symbolized the coming together of the Roman, Christian, & Germanic elements that forged European civilization • Carolingian Renaissance was promoted by Charlemagne desire to promote learning • Benedictine monks played important role in revival of learning
Fall of Carolingian empire • Charlemagne died in 814/ by 844 Carolingian empire divided into 3 kingdoms by grandsons • Muslims invaded southern France • Magyars settled on the plains of Hungary
Vikings (Norsemen of Scandinavia) attacked the empire • Vikings were superb warriors & shipbuilders/ famed dragon ships carrying about 50 men could go shallow rivers to attack inland • 9th century, Vikings settled in Europe • 911, Frankish king gave Vikings land of Normandy
Feudalism • Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the people due to decentralized government • People began to turn landed aristocrats or nobles for protection/ led to feudalism • Feudalism arose between 800-900/ similar system in Japan- Samurai • Vassalage = center of feudalism/ came from Germanic society where warriors swore oath to their leader • Vassal = man who served a lord militarily
Feudalism: Military Service for Land
Feudalism • Knights = heavily armored warriors • Male = armor made of metal links or plates • Frankish army initially set up foot soldiers in mail • Heavily armored knights dominated warfare for over 500 years • Knights had great prestige & formed much of European aristocracy • Early Middle Ages (500-1000) wealth was based on owning land/very little trade • Nobles gave a piece of land to vassals in exchange for fighting = fief
Feudalism • Vassals had political authority in their fief/in charge of keeping order • Feudalism became complicated = kings had vassals who had vassals • Feudal contract = unwritten rules that characterized feudalism/relationship between king & vassal/knights for about 40-60 days a year • Vassals were to advise the lord, financial obligations to the lord, knighting of his eldest son, • Lord supported the vassal with land grant & protection in military & court
Feudal Obligations • Vassals: • Military service for 40-60 days. • Homage. • Serve on the lord’s court. • Gifts for weddings and knighthoods. • Ransom. • Lords: • Protection. • Justice. • Wardship – oversee personal affairs and family if vassal dies in service.
Page, Squire, Knight
Feudalism • Castles = permanent residences & fortresses/#’s increased in high middle ages(1000-1300) • Middle Ages = nobles dominated European society/ main concern was warfare • Nobles = kings, dukes, counts, barons, bishops, archbishops • Knighthood = united lords & knights in aristocracy • Knights = trained as warriors/ no adult responsibility • Young knights held tournaments to show their skills/ joust became main attraction
Feudalism • 11th & 12th century, under influence of Church- chivalry became important to knights • Chivalry = civilized behavior, knights were to defend the church & defenseless people, treat captives as honored guests, fight for glory not rewards • Women could own property, but were under control of men/ first their fathers, then their husbands • Lady of the castle in charge of household & estate • Eleanor of Aquitane = married to king Louis VII of France & Henry II of England/ 2 children became kings of England