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Feudalism

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  1. SSWH7 The student will analyze European medieval society with regard to culture, politics, society, and economics.

  2. a. Explain the manorial system and feudalism; include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne.

  3. Feudalism • A system based on rights and obligations • The king was at the top of the system with landless peasants at the bottom • The peasants, or serfs, were bound by law to stay on the land and grow food and serve those above them • The king in return, was supposed to protect the serfs

  4. Manorial System • A manor was the king’s estate • A self contained system where the king provided housing and land, and in return the serfs took care of the king’s land

  5. Charlemagne (768-843) • Emperor of the Frankish Kingdom (Germany) • Was crowned “Roman Emperor” by the pope, joining Germany with the church • Limited the power of the nobles, developed schools for the wealthy • United most of Western Europe under one ruler

  6. Charlemagne • Promoted the arts • The end of Charlemagne’s rule spelled the beginning of the feudal system

  7. b. Describe the political impact of Christianity; include Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV of Germany (Holy Roman Emperor).

  8. Pope Gregory VII • In 1075 Pope Gregory banned the practice of kings appointing Catholic bishops • Bishops held great local power and helped the king control the people through religion • King Henry IV of Germany refused to follow the order and demanded that the Pope resign • The Pope instead excommunicated the King, which caused upheaval and revolts against Henry

  9. King Henry IV of Germany • To save his throne, Henry marched across the Alps during winter, and begged for the Pope’s forgiveness • This action helped establish and reinforce papal power over monarchies

  10. c. Explain the role of the church in medieval society

  11. Medieval Church • The Catholic Church held influence with the ability to excommunicate and interdiction, which when issued, would prevent Christians from going to heaven • Though politically and socially separated the Church unified people through religion

  12. d. Describe how increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities.

  13. Growth of Towns and Cities in Medieval Times • Farmers began using horses to plow fields which allowed for more crops to be grown • A greater amount of food allowed for a population explosion, which led to movement into towns and the settling of new towns • Trade from across Europe grew to satisfy the needs of the greater population