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POLYMER

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POLYMER

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  1. POLYMER CLASS XI SEMESTER 2 SMKN 7 BANDUNG

  2. Standard competency • Explains system classification and polymer usefulness • Based competency • Explains polymer usefulness • Classification of Polymer • The aim of the lesson • Student can explain polymer understanding. • Classification student of Polymer can. • Student can explain usefulness and the application of polymer in everyday life. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  3. Polymer • Polymer is macromolecule built from a large amount of small molecule so-called with monomer. Polymer usually composes more than five monomers. • Example; Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  4. Protein is polymer from amino acid Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  5. Polyisoprene / Natural rubber Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  6. DNA Molecule Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  7. Reaction of Phenol-formaldehyde resin forming Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  8. Telephone set made from copolymer akrilonitrilbutadiena styrene Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  9. Excess and lacking of polymer • Excess: • Has resilience that is good to corrosion • Has character doesn't pass temperature and electrics that is good • Strong comparison / good weight • Easy to be processed and printed to become various forms • Easy to be added additive, modifier and color • Earns transparent • Insuffiency: • Limited heat range • less Strong ( can be destroy, barst and incised easily) • Flammable • Difficult to raveled ( non degradable) Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  10. Structural and characters • Plastic is organic material which has experienced polymerize and is solid with moldable height molar mass with jetting • There are two plastic types; • Thermoplastics can be mellowed with warm-up, let is cool and ossifies and is mellowed again several times • Termoset, cannot be mellowed with reheat, tends to permanent Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  11. Synthetic Polymer, In The Form Of Plastic • Thermoplastics Polymer structure ( a) and termoset ( b). Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  12. classification of Polymer • Polymer molecule is very big. Polymer majority consisted of long chain with atom C as backbone. If(when all its(the monomer is same, its(the molecule called as homo polymer. If(when there is monomer type multiple, the molecule called as copolymer. a. Rotation copolymer : copolymer with formation of monomer which formed in rotation. b. Copolymer random : copolymer with formation of monomer which formed irregular. c. Block copolymer : copolymer with formation of monomer formed regularly with certain quantity. d. Copolymer branches : copolymer with structured branch from monomer differing from its(the mains chain. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  13. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  14. Based on its(the molecule structure, polymer is classified to become; • Linear polymer; branch and doesn't branch • Cross tying polymer; without branch and with branch Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  15. Based on location in enchaining polymer from atom or bunch from monomer non symmetries, polymer is differentiated to become isotactic polymer, polymer sindiotaktik and polymer ataktik. • Isotactic polyvinylchloride: all atoms Cl regularly stays at one sides from polymer chain. • Polyvinylchloride sindiotaktik: atom Cl in rotation stays at one sides from polymer chain with other side. • Polyvinylchloride ataktik: atom Cl at random stays at chain polymer. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  16. Reaction of polymerize • It is reaction of merger of small molecules ( monomer) is forming big molecule, there is 2 type reaction of polymerize that is; • Addition polymerization • Condensation polymerization Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  17. Addition polymerization • Happened at monomer having unsatiated tying, example; alkene. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  18. Mechanism of addition polymerization covers four phases, that is: • Forms free radical : Chain reaction requires radical free and initiation by ultraviolet [light/ray] and by decomposition of compound, for example benzoic peroxide. • Inisiasi : Radium Free Radical· groans tying C = C. Radical new free is formed in each reaction. • Lengthens chain ( propagation) : Free radical groans tying C = other C. Extension of chain always takes place forms • Terminasi : Extension of chain earns well on into there is no remaining monomer. However, usually reaction propagation desists before pot is clean monomer by the way ( a) combination from two radicals or ( b) disproportionate. Disproportionate polymer chain to yield branch. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  19. initiation of Polyethylene chain with growth of chain which entangles ( a) forming of free radical from initiator like benzoyl peroxide ( b) attack of re- unit polietena by one of radical initiator, and ( c) attack of re- unit addition for propagation chain. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  20. Termination chain polietena is being growing: ( a) back part active from two chains is each other nearby, ( b) two chains experiences combination and becomes one length chains, and ( c) reconstituting hydrogen atom and yields double covalent bond with disproportionate causes termination from two chains. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  21. Condensation polymerization • Be reaction of addition of elimination Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  22. Beverage bottle made from poli ( ethylentereftalat) Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  23. Polymer Character • As according to its(the usage, for example for packaging or equipments industry, polymer character that need to be paid attention is: • Character is mall [by] • Flexing character • Its(the toxicity • Its(the endurance to microorganism • Its(the endurance to water or oil. • Air penetrability ( oxygen) • Transparent Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  24. Polymer Usefulness • Poli(etena) low density ( LDPE) LDPE, made at high pressure ( around 15 atm), consisted of molecule branchs and has density 0,91 – 0,94 g cm3. LDPE many applied by this strong material and easy to be printed and resistant to water attack, weather, sour and alkaline. LDPE applied as sheet thin ( film) to make plastic sack; bag and food packer frost. Power cable is isolated with poli(etena) because its(the resilience to bad wheater condition better than rubber applied before all. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  25. Poli(etena) high density ( HDPE) Poli(etena) high density, HDPE, made at atmospheric pressure with Ziegler catalyst help, for example chloride titanium and trietil aluminum. Its(the molecule having a bit of branch and lapped over is closer one same other, yields high density, 0,95 – 0,97 g cm3, higher melting point, 135 Celsius, and bigger tensile strength. harder HDPE and stronger than LDPE and not easy to soften by temperature. HDPE applied for makes cistern and pipe, bottle, detergent pail and kinds of household equipments. Because can be sterilization with warm-up, HDPE applied to make equipments of hospital like pan. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  26. Polivinil chloride ( P.V.C.) • Harder P.V.C. and stronger than polietena because chlorine atom increases interesting attractive force between chains. P.V.C. applied for window framework and water pipe. Addition of plasticizers opens more many opportunities for its use. P.V.C. added by plasticizer applied for shoe and sandal, bottle, place of food, and cling film. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  27. Polystyrene • Polystrene is one of easiest plastic is printed. Because transparent, usually is added pigment to yield material opaque. Crystalline polystyrene known as pen ballpoint. Coffee glass which can thrown and milk pasteboard made of polystyrene added by pigment white of oxide titanium. Spume polystyrene is made by adding hexane to yield frilled of solid polymer before heated and printed. This material many applied to wrap goods which fragile. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  28. Polipropena • Polipropena is to applies Ziegler-Natta catalyst. There are three kinds of polipropena differentiated based on situation of methyl bunch at main chain, be isotacticpolipropilen, polipropilensindiotaktik and polipropilenataktik ( its(the structure picture is identical with structural picture polyvinylchloride. Polipropena serve the purpose of place of food, equipments hospital required sterilization, protector to prevent the entry of water, pipes in the field of medical Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  29. Teflon is trade name from polymer so-called politetrafluoroetena or PTFE. This very slippery material causing is applied to make anti sticky layer at panic. Side that, Teflon also applied at clothes to make dirt difficult to patch. P.T.F.E. also not reactive, causing applied to make pipe and potting for chemicals. Part of molecule structure Teflon shown to picture Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  30. Polymer Impact to Area of • In everyday life many goodies applied be synthetic polymer started from plastic sack ; bag for shopping, plastic food and beverage packer, plastic packaging, electrical equipments, household equipments, and electronic equipments. Every shopping us in insignificant amount, for example in booth, always we will get plastic packer and plastic sack ; bag (keresek). The goods is synthetic polymer of which haves no elaborated by microorganism. As a result, the goods would heaps in the form of garbage which cannot decay. Or corks aqueduct causing floods. Synthetic polymer garbage doesn't be burned, because will yield compound dioxin. Dioxin it is a real poisonous gas compound and haves the character of carcinogenic (causes cancer). Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  31. Plastic polyvinyl chloride is not dangerous, but vinyl chloride monomer very carcinogenic and poisonous resulting handicap to born. Plastic what applied as food packer, if it is hit temperature worried of its(the monomer will raveled and contamination will food. To lessen contamination of plastic : • Lessens plastic usage. • Plastic garbage must be dissociated with organic garbage, so that can be recycled. • Doesn't throw away plastic garbage promiscuously. • Plastic garbage doesn't be burned. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  32. To avoid danger of poisoned as result of plastic usage: • Applies packaging of food which more safe, like glass. • Applies kissed, if food / plastic aroma beverage didn't applied. Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait

  33. Thank You Isi dengan Judul Halaman Terkait