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Polymer Molecules

Polymer Molecules. Condensation and Addition Polymers. Proteins and Enzymes,. Index. Condensation polymers; starch, polyamides and polyesters. Proteins. Enzymes. Linear and cross-linked polymers. Specialised polymers. Consumption of plastic. H. H. O. O. H. +. O. O. H. O. O.

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Polymer Molecules

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  1. Polymer Molecules Condensation and Addition Polymers. Proteins and Enzymes,

  2. Index Condensation polymers; starch, polyamides and polyesters Proteins Enzymes Linear and cross-linked polymers Specialised polymers Consumption of plastic

  3. H H O O H + O O H O O O H2O H H Glucose Glucose Maltose O O O Starch Condensation Polymers Polymers are very large molecules made by joining small molecules called monomers, into long chains or networks. Condensation polymers are made from monomers with two functional groups which can be the same or different. Starch is made by polymerisation of about 300 glucose molecules The adding together of monomers to make a polymer is called polymerisation.

  4. O H H O C C H O O H H N N O H O O O O Diacid monomer Diamine monomer O O O H H C C C C C C H O O H O O O O Diol monomer Diacid monomer H O + water N C Amide link Polyesters and Polyamides Polyesters are examples of condensation polymers and are formed when a carboxylic acid monomerreacts with an alcohol monomer. Polyamides (eg Nylon and Kevlar) are formed when an amide link is formed by the reaction of an amino functional group with a carboxyl group.

  5. Condensation Polymers + Polyester, e.g. terylene Polyesters are used as textiles and resins. The latter have 3D structures, unlike textiles, which have a linear structure. animation Polyamide, e.g. nylon, an important engineering plastic. It’s strength due to hydrogen bonding between the linear polymer chains. Engineering plastics are a group of plastics materials that exhibit superior mechanical and thermal properties www

  6. Amino Acids R Most proteins contain 20+ different amino acids NH2CHCOOH When R is Hydrogen, the amino acid is glycine (Gly) (aminoethanoic acid) When R is CH3, the amino acid is alanine (Ala) (2-aminopropanoic acid) R H O H N C C O H H Protein Polymers All proteins contain the elements C,O,H, N. They are condensation polymers, made by amino acids linking together. An amine group of one molecule links to the carboxyl group of another molecule to form an amide or peptide bond. The body cannot make every type of amino acids that it needs. So our diet must contain essential amino acids. (about 10 of them). We synthesis the others.

  7. H CH3 H CH3 H O H2NCHC NCHC NCHCOOH H N C O H O O H O H H N C O H Amino acid monomer CH3 H CH3 + + H2NCHCOOH H2NCHCOOH H2NCHCOOH O H C N Peptide link Protein Polymers alanine glycine alanine Tripeptide, ala-gly-ala Polypeptide chain can have 10000 amino acids

  8. R1 R2 R3 H2NCHC HNCHC HNCHC O H O O O H O H O H H Peptidase enzyme R1 R2 R3 H2NCHC HNCHC HNCHC O H O O O Protein Digestion Proteins are broken down during digestion. Digestion involves the hydrolysis of proteins to form amino acids Protein 2 x H-O-H added and the peptide bond breaks here Amino acids

  9. Globular proteins Proteins which operate within cells need to be soluble. The polypeptide chains are coiled together in spherical shapes. E.g. Haemoglobin and many hormones. e.g. Insulin, was the first protein structure to be worked out. Enzymes are globular proteins. Protein Structures Some proteins are composed of a single polypeptide chain, but many consist of two or more polypeptide chains. Proteins are classified according to their shape into fibrous and globular proteins. Fibrous proteins These have their polypeptide chains interwoven. The polypeptide chains are held together by hydrogen bonding, between the N-H and the C=O groups. This gives these proteins their properties of toughness, insolubility, and resistance to change in pH and temperature. So they are found in skin,tissue, (collagens), hair, nails (keratins). www 13.8

  10. Silk is a typical example of a fibrous protein. Protein Structures Silk This view shows the individual atoms in the protein chains. This view shows the protein chains contain 2 different amino acids.

  11. Albumen, in egg white, is a globular protein.. Protein Structures Albumen backbone view atom view

  12. Protein Structures Enzymes are globular proteins. The structure of amylase is shown below. Starch molecule in the enzyme’s active site.

  13. Narrow optimum range Enzyme activity Temp or pH Enzyme Activity Enzymes catalyse chemical reactions in the body. Each enzyme has a unique shape held together by many weak bonds. Changes to pH and temperature can denature the enzyme. This changes the enzymes shape stops it working properly. The bonds that hold most biological enzymes are broken around 60oC. www

  14. Substrate Enzyme Enzyme Activity, Lock and Key The critical part of an enzyme molecule is called its active site. This is where binding of the substrate to enzyme occurs and where catalysis takes place. Most enzymes have one active site per molecule.

  15. Enzyme Activity, Lock and Key Substrate Enzyme Active site

  16. Enzyme Activity, Lock and Key The substrate becomes activated Enzyme

  17. Enzyme Activity, Lock and Key The substrate becomes activated Enzyme

  18. Enzyme Activity, Lock and Key The complex molecule splits Enzyme

  19. Enzyme Activity, Lock and Key The complex molecule splits Enzyme

  20. H H H H C C C + C H H H H Linear Addition Polymers > > polythene Under the right conditions ethene molecules can be made to join together. The double bond must be broken for this to happen

  21. H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H n Polymerisation The ethene molecule is called a monomer. Adding monomers together makes a polymer, in this case, Polythene. (a linear addition polymer) Polythene can be made photodegradable by putting some C=O groups into the chain

  22. F C6H5 H Cl H F C C C C C C H H H H F F Tetrafluoroethene (teflon) Non-stick coating on frying pans Phenylethene (Polystyrene) Expanded foam for packaging Chloroethene (P.V.C.) Artificial leather Other Addition Polymers By replacing a H in the ethene molecule, further addition polymers can be made. Three monomers are shown: www 18.4

  23. Video demonstrations on polymers Under the heading : Synthetics www Bakelite Polyurethane foam Nylon, Nylon, RSC Alchemy series video Polythene, RSC Alchemy series video History of Plastics

  24. Cross-Linked Polymers Bakelite When polymer chains are linked by covalent bonds the polymer is then described as cross linked. The resulting cross-linked structure means that the polymer is hard, rigid and heat resistant. It is a thermosetting plastic.

  25. Specialised Polymers Kevlar is an aromatic polyamide. Both monomers are aromatic. Hydrogen bonding The polymer chains are long, flat, and lined up in a regular pattern held by hydrogen bonding. Used in bullet proof vests, ropes and fire proof clothing.

  26. Uses of Kevlar Uses include: • as a substitute for steel • Fabric for windsurfing sails and protective clothing • Bullet proof vests and body armour • Reinforcing fibre in composites, often with carbon fibre. Disadvantages of Kevlar fibres: • they are difficult to cut • It is much weaker in compression • Very prone to UV degradation

  27. Ester exchange + methanol Polyethenyl ethanoate CH3 CH3 H O H C O C O O O O CH CH CH CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 Specialised Polymers Poly(ethenol)is an addition polymer. It is made by converting an existing polymer which has ester side groups with hydroxyl groups. The polymer can be made to be water soluble, by controlling the amount of ester exchange, 90% ester exchange is soluble in cold water. Soiled hospital laundry can be collected in bags made from poly(ethenol). Polyethenol (polyvinyl alcohol) Both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals’ forces operate between poly(ethenol) molecules. The stronger these forces the less soluble the polymer. <90% of –OH replacement are soluble in cold water.

  28. Specialised Polymers • Most plastics are not biodegradable. • Most polymers, including polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamides and polycarbonate, are highly resistant to microbial attack. • Natural polymers are generally more biodegradable than synthetic polymers. • Polymers containing an ester linkage, especially aliphatic polyesters, are potentially biodegradable Biodegradable polymers include poly(lactic acid) (PLA) which is made from the self-condensation of lactic acid. PLA breaks down into lactic acid which can be metabolised and has found uses in, drug delivery systems and wound healing. Biopol is another biodegradable plastic. . www

  29. CH3 H O C2H5 H O + HO C C C OH HO C C C OH H H H H CH3 H O C2H5 H O O C C C O C C C O H H H H Specialised Polymers Biopol This plastic is biodegradable. This plastic is produced by the fermentation of ethanoic and propanoic acids by bacteria. Biopol is therfore unsuitable for foods requiring a long shelf life. High production costs and the recycling of polymers has meant that Biopol has lost its importance.

  30. Specialised Polymers Poly(vinylcarbazole) This polymer can conduct electricity when exposed to light. It is widely used in photocopying machines as a replacement for selenium, which is poisonous.

  31. UK Consumption of Plastics by Type L/LLDPE OTHERS 19.3% 20.7% UP Resin HDPE 1.8% 11.3% PET/PBT 5.5% ABS/SAN 2.1% PP PA PVC 16.1% 1% 16% PS 47% of the polymer used is polyolefins, based on ethylene or propylene EPS 5.2% 1.2% Plastic use

  32. Sustainability

  33. Nylon

  34. Polythene

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