Canadian History Life in Upper and Lower Canada
Geography of Upper and Lower Canada • Population increased from 250000 in 1806 to 717000 in 1841 in Lower Canada • Loyalists leaving the United States during American Revolution originally settled Upper Canada • After the war American settlers were no longer welcome • As a result of British immigration the population of upper Canada increased from 71000 in 1806 to 432000 in 1841, population was 80% American • 3rd major change industry, important part of economy of Lower Canada • 1763, Montreal Merchants formed North West Company to compete for furs with Hudson’s Bay Company • North West Company proceeded to build posts far to west, easy for Natives to bring their furs • Hudson Bay Company had post on Hudson Bay, could ship furs and trading goods • Fur frontier was moving further North all the time, meant it was getting more expensive for North West Company to take furs to the market and transport goods to trading post • British occupied Upper Canada • French occupied Lower Canada
Life in Lower Canada • Life in lower Canada • Time of section 1815-1838 • Lower Canada was a male dominated society • Most of people were French-speaking • There were 3 major groups of people living in • the area • English-speaking merchants, • Habitants • French speaking profession men • Each group has there own special concerns • Woman didn’t enter the professions (doctors, lawyers, judges) • Natives in the area has no power in government
The Three Groups • Habitants • -they were French speaking farmers • lived there for the last 150 years • work on long strips of land call seigneur • The seigneurs were really important but got thinner through generations • Professional Men • They were French speaking professionals • Did not become prominent until after 1800 • Educated people ex. Doctors and lawyers • wanted to become leaders and believed they spoke for all French people • They believe New France should separated from the rest of Canada • They formed a new political party call the “Parti Canadien” • Merchants • Merchants were mostly English-speaking • Merchants are new comers in lower Canada • They arrived in 1763 because of major events • When new France became British the merchants were rich and powerful • Made money from merchandising • They wanted to improve road, canals and harbours
Government of Lower Canada • The system of government was established by the Constitutional Act of 1791 • The power of the elected Legislative Assembly was limited by the governor and the Councils • After 1817 the Legislative Assembly controlled revenues in Lower Canada • The laws could be vetoed by the Legislative Council, the Executive Council, and the British appointed governor • The members of the Councils we appointed for life, the could not be voted out at election time • The members appointed by the governor were usually English speaking • There concerns were different from the French speaking Habitants and professional men
Louis-Joseph Papineau • October 7, 1786 – September 23, 1871 • Wealthy seigneur • Strong supporter of French order • Favored doing things the old way (before British) • Officer in militia (Militia Definition-An army made up of ordinary citizens (not soldiers in the military) who undergo training incase of emergency, or in case of national defense crisis) • Served in militia in the war of 1812 (defending British North America from the Americans (present day USA) • Elected into Legislative assembly in 1809 • Served as speaker from 1815 to 1837 • Became leader of “parti canadien” or later known as(after 1826) “parti patriote” • Lead the people who wanted political reform (political reform definition- changes to make the government better) • Some of the “parti canadiens” goals were to bring back the French language (as Canada’s main language), allow roman catholic religion, and use traditional agriculture methods.
Unrest in Lower Canada • The French speaking people and merchants wanted different things for Lower Canada • Merchants wanted improved canals, harbors, and roads to make it easier to transport wheat and timber to Britain • Immigration was also causing problems • When more immigrants came the • Canadians thought that there might • not be any space left for them to farm • In June 1832 an immigrant brought a deadly disease • called chlora which killed over 5500 people • In 1882 the merchants asked the British to unite upper and lower Canada • 1834 the Legislative assembly made a list of their grievances which they called the Nineteen Resolutions
Armed Rebellion in Lower Canada • The armed rebellion lasted only a few weeks and started November 23, 1837 • The rebellions won the battle and built a log fort in St. Charles. • When the British attacked again the rebellions lost • In the second battle 40 people were killed, 30 were wounded, and 500 others were captured. • The surviving rebels fled to United States • A bigger battle took place in December 1837 at St. Eustache • The British burned and robbed the city ending any hopes of a successful rebellion
Life in Upper Canada -You have certain duties like building a house, a fence, and clear land for a road. -You had to do this within two years of arriving in Upper Canada. -They had a contained area to live in so this would have been very hard, because you couldn’t expand your property. -They depended on their own ingenuity for their survival. -Received little education from neighbors or parents. -They were subsistent farmers. -They had to work daily for their necessities. -Had to visit towns nearby to grind grain or to sawmill their lumber. -Used physical labor to fell the trees and remove the stumps, if they wanted something they needed to work for it. -Later they became elaborate with government and things like that.
Who are the reformers and what did they oppose? -They opposed the power of the family compact -They wanted changes in the government and in the society of Upper Canada. -Were angered by the attitudes of the members of the family compact towards the Americans in the colony. -Were divided into moderate and radical groups -Included some radicals who later became rebels
Family Compact and Government in Upper Canada • Government in Upper Canada • There was an elected legislative Assembly, appointed Legislative Council and Executive Council, and s British appointed lieutenant-governor • There was two political groups: The Tories and the Reformers • Family Compact • Was a small group of powerful people in the colony of upper Canada • Along with their friends and supporters were known as Tories • Did not want people from the U.S. to be part of the government of upper Canada • Defended tradition and apposed change • Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people • Believed the Church of England should be powerful in the colony • Were loyal to Great Britain and to the British system of government
Armed Rebellion in Upper Canada • Armed Rebellion in Upper Canada The most rebellious were called Radicals • Radicals wanted Upper Canada to have a government like U.S. • British troops left Toronto to defend government of Lower Canada • Thousands of weapons were left unguarded in Toronto • Mackenzie was then ready for an armed rebellion • Mackenzie suggested the rebels seize the weapons, capture Sir Francis Bond Head, and proclaim a new government • Mackenzie got a petition to collect the names of people in favor of the proposed new government • He collected 4000 names • Mackenzie led about 800 men down Yonge Street in Toronto • Mackenzie escaped to United States after defeat • He tried to raise and army to liberate Upper Canada He was imprisoned for 11 months for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and U.S. • 2 rebels, Samuel Louit and Peter Mathews were hung for crime of treason. • Aftermath of the Rebellions • Lower Canada ended up worse the before the rebellion In Upper Canada, people were afraid to speak out because even moderate reformers were rebels • Prime minister sent Lord Durham as governor general • Lord Durham investigated rebellion causes and suggested answers to the problems
Lord Durham • -John George Lambton • -Governor general of British North America • -Sent investigate causes of rebellion • -Interests in educating poor • -Nicknamed radical jack due to Radical Politics (Plans for major changes) • - Set most of patriots free and exiled leaders o Bermuda- patriots who fled to the states would be executed if returned to Canada • -resigned as governor general in 1838 • -made 2 recommendations • -Upper Canada and lower become one colony • - New colony needed a responsible government
Act of Union in 1841 Act of Union in 1841 • -British government decided to act of Lord Durham’s recommendation • -Act of Union of 1841, joined upper and Lower Canada together as a united province of Canada • -First step towards confederation (union of the British North American Colonies) • -aim: unite the two colonies of Canada into one single unit, and give the English speaking people control of the newly named colony • -Act of Union government system • British government • Governor General • Legislative council • Executive council • Legislative assembly • voters
Bibliography • Upper Canada Map • http://www.heritagefdn.on.ca/userfiles/page_attachments/Library/1/3374253_Upper_Canada_map.jpg • armed rebellion in lower Canada • http://canadawiki.org/images/1/16/Montgomerystavern.jpg • Louis Joseph Papineau • http://www.pastforward.ca/perspectives/images/Papineau1.jpg • Geography of Upper and Lower Canada • http://www.antique-atlas.co.uk/maps/9470.jpg • Armed Rebellion In Upper Canada • http://www.ottres.ca/hconline/chapters/5/5images/C3CAROLI.JPG • Lower Canada Map • http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/historical/preconfederation/britishnorthamerica1823/75a.gif • Life In Lower Canada • http://www.unites.uqam.ca/expo/Outils/Lecture/ElliceRD.m.jpg • Lord Durnham • http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.lbpsb.qc.ca/~history/05a.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.lbpsb.qc.ca/~history/m4u3l1.htm&h=257&w=194&sz=21&hl=en&start=13&um=1&tbnid=BQ_LW_U5zyH3TM:&tbnh=112&tbnw=85&prev=/images%3Fq%3DGovernment%2Bof%2BLower%2BCanada%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den • After Math of the rebellion: • http://www.clan-macrae.org.uk/scotland/images/culloden.jpg • Reformers • http://www.republiquelibre.org/cousture/images5/BAS1793.GIF • Upper Canada Government: • http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/English/exhibits/franco_ontarian/pics/ac619857_signing_circ_270.jpg • Life In upper Canada • http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=79513&rendTypeId=4 • Unrest in Lower Canada • http://www.freewebs.com/historysite78/immigrants.gif • Government of Lower Canada • http://www.canadainfolink.ca/chapais.jpg • The 3 Groups: • Habitants: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/1b/Habitants-Cornelius_Krieghoff.jpg/250px-Habitants-Cornelius_Krieghoff.jpg • Merchants http://www.barnstable.k12.ma.us/bhs/SocStud/Turner/images/merchants.jpg • Professional Men http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/63july/images/page35.jpg • The Act of Union in 1841 • http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=a1ARTA0000029 Canaa a peoples history txtbook. Pgs 130-164