PSY 312: Brain and Behavior Dr. Mark Prendergast Office: B449 BBSRB (on the corner of Virginia and Limestone St.) Office hours: by appointment Telephone: 257-6120 e-mail: email@example.com Tracy Butler, M.S. Office: 448-D BBSRB Office hours: by appointment Telephone: 323-0575 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Required Text: Basics of Biopsychology by John P.J. Pinel (2007)
Outline:This class provides an introduction to structural and functional characteristics of the nervous system. Topics range from simple brain structures and behaviors to more complex functions such as drug addiction and other psychiatric illnesses. Attendance:Attendance is never a course requirement in my classes. Cheating:Cheating is not tolerated. I define cheating as either giving or receiving help during exams or during the writing of a paper. This can be from a classmate or any other method, including copying from a WWW site. In addition, any written assignment for this class is to be done independently and working on written assignments together also constitutes as cheating. If you need further clarification of what the University defines as cheating, please read the description in your Students Rights and Responsibilities Handbook. Anyone caught cheating will at minimum receive a zero and likely fail the course.
Grading: Your grade will be based on the % correct on 3 exams, including the final (100 points each, a total of 300 points). Each exam will consist of multiple choice questions. If an emergency arises and you must miss class on an exam day, please let me know prior to class. Make-up exams should be scheduled as soon as possible. Final grades will be assigned on a curve based upon overall exam performance. Regardless of class performance, however, 90% is guaranteed an "A", 80% at least a "B", 70% at least a “C”, 60% at least a “D” and below 60% an E. Extra Credit: All students will be allowed to complete 1 extra credit assignment worth up to the equivalent of 5 points on an exam. This assignment must be a 2 page (double spaced) summary of an article published in a scientific journal identified on www.pubmed.com. Extra credit assignments are due prior to the final exam. Documented disability policy: if a disability exists and requires academic accommodations, please see me as soon as possible. To receive accommodations in the course, you must provide me with a Letter of Accommodation from the Disability Resource Center.
Anatomy of Brain Prendergast Sept. 9th and 14th: NO CLASS Neural Activity Prendergast Development of the Nervous System Prendergast Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity Prendergast Learning, Memory, and Amnesia Butler/Prendergast Hunger, Eating, and Health Butler Hormones and Sex Prendergast Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms Prendergast Addiction, Emotion, and Stress Prendergast Guest Lecture, Dr. Bill Stoops: Studying Drug Abuse in Humans Addiction, Emotion, and Stress, cont’d Prendergast Mechanisms of Perception Prendergast Behavioral Neuroscience of Psychiatric Butler Sensory Motor Systems Prendergast Special role that genes and heritability play in behavior Prendergast
FINAL EXAM: 12/14 @ 1:00 p.m. Lecture notes: available on-line before every class at http://www.uky.edu/~prender/welcome_files/slide0001.htm - hates Safari or Mozilla - likes Internet Explorer
How should you use your textbook ??? • Lecture material is the most important to know • The textbook is meant to help explain the lectures • If material is in the book but not the lecture, you will not be tested over it • You do not need to read every part of every chapter I suggest… • … that you read lecture notes first, then consult the book • If there is still any confusion, come talk to me or Tracy
http://www.uky.edu/~prender/welcome_files/slide0001.htm here is how you can print the slides out without the dark background, in plain black and white. 1. click on print, when the print dialog box opens look to the lower left, for the menu called "print what". 2. use the mouse to select "handouts" 3. just below that menu is another menu called "Color/grayscale". Use the mouse to select "pure black and white". 4. just to the right of the "print what" and "Color/grayscale" drop down menus is a menu called "slides per page". Just pick how many slides you want per page and print them out. The slides will be all black and white with no background.
Anatomy of the Brain (and spinal cord) What you see is NOT what you get !
Legend for color coding: Cerebral cortex Ventricle (cerebrospinal fluid) Corpus callosum Cerebellum Brain stem Gyri (gyryus): folds of brain Sulci (sulcus): gaps between gyri The HOPES Brain Tutorial (Stanford University)
2 primary cell types in nervous system • neurons – 10 to 100 billion neurons can vary tremendously in size and shape but all have 3 components • Cell body or “soma” • contains nucleus • Dendrites • “antenna” of neuron, projections that receive chemical signals from other neurons and other types of cells • Axons • The “transmitter” of a neuron, it’s usually a long fiber (can be inches long) that ends very closely to another neuron goal of every cell is to receive chemical signals from nearby cells and to send chemical signals to nearby cells
Dendrites Cell Body Axon
3 1 2 • Chemicals are transported to end of axon • by “microtubes” • Packaged in fatty “sacs” called “synaptic vesicles” • Release, out of axon at the right time
Neurons can be: Multipolar: many “processes” extend from cell body (most neurons) Unipolar: 1 process Bipolar: 2 processes
1: “Nucleus” * Core of cell body * Contains almost all genetic information 2: Nearby cells called “oligodendrocytes” wrap most axons with a fatty substance called “myelin”
3 primary types of neurons • motor neurons • efferent – carry info from CNS • sensory neurons • afferent – carry info toward CNS • interneurons • carry info within regions
2. Glial cells – 10 to 100X the number of neurons • Glial cells provide important supportive role: • providing nutrients to neurons • provide support for neurons • myelin sheaths (oligodendrocytes in brain/spinal cord “Schwann cell in periphery) • play a role in response to neuronal injury • astrocytes • play a role in brain development • radial glia(helps guide new neurons to their place in brain)
2 divisions of the nervous system • CNS – Central Nervous System • brain, spinal cord • PNS – Peripheral Nervous System • Everything outside of the brain and spinal cord
PNS - peripheral nervous system2 components 1. autonomic nervous system - “involuntary” - role in emotion and stress controls smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands two anatomically separate components
Sympathetic Nervous System(part of autonomic NS) • “fight or flight” • activated during emergencies, stress and/or arousal • ex. Adrenal gland releases adrenalin (norepinephrine) into blood stream • causes increased heart rate, better attention
You don’t need to remember this stuff.
Parasympathetic nervous system • Maintain homeostasis, energy restoration • physiological changes: • Role is to regulate normal bodily function at times of rest - lower heart rate, stimulates digestion of food, controls urination, etc.
You don’t need to remember this stuff.
2. Somatic nervous system • voluntary nervous system • 31 pairs of spinal nerves • ** NERVE – BUNDLE OF AXONS OUTSIDE THE CNS • sensory nerves • Afferent (transmit information about touch, pain, temperature. (but not vision or smell !) • Motornerves • Efferent (controls movement)
Spinal column and spinal nerves: Bridge from brain to peripheral NS Sections of Cord Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral A pair of nerves (31 pairs) emerges from each level 1 of each pair = sensory info. to spinal cord from body 1 of each pair = motor info. from spinal cord to body
dorsal ventral Gray matter vs white matter ?? Dorsal root (incoming) vs ventral root (outgoing)
“afferent” Brings info. INTO the the brain “efferent” Sends info. OUT of the brain
Brain-maps.com Courtesy, Marie-Luise Lehmann
Central Nervous System - brain and spinal cord • How is it protected? • skull • obvious - advantages of skull • less obvious - disadvantage- closed head injury • -swelling causes compression of brain
CNS • How is it protected? • Skull • CSF - cerebrospinal fluid • CSF production • role of ventricles • Advantages: • Cushion • Delivers nutrients • Disadvantages: • hydrocephaly
CNS - • How is it protected? • Skull • CSF - cerebrospinal fluid • meninges 3 membranes that “wrap” around the outside of brain dura mater – “tough mold”, leather-like outer meninge arachnoid – middle layer pia mater- “little mold”, directly attached to brain
Dura mater Arachnoid mater The Pia mater is too thin to see (also, it usually tears off when the Arachnoid mater is removed)
meninges- Protect brain by: preventing it from touch skull holding cerebrospinal fluid in stabilizing blood supply to and from brain
CNS • How is it protected? • Skull • CSF - cerebrospinal fluid • meninges • blood brain barrier
capillaries organs muscle brain arteries Blood Blood-brain barrier (BBB):protects brain by making it difficult for substances to get in • Most substances (nutrients, oxygen,drugs, proteins, etc.) are carried into the • cranium by the blood stream. But, most things can’t get from the blood • to neurons because of the BBB 3. 1. 2. Drugs, oxygen, nutrients, etc.… diffuse through capillary walls into tissue
Capillary Red blood cells
muscle organs, etc muscle organs, etc muscle organs, etc Lipid (fat) cells Capillary in peripheral nervous system drugs nutrients toxins O2 1. Things in blood diffuse into tissue relatively easily Endothelial cells Capillary in Central Nervous System O2 • Most things can’t get out of capillaries because of endothelial cells • Important things, like oxygen, glucose are “transported” into brain • by special transporters
Example of the importance of blood-brain barrier • Medication dosing: some drugs (for example, Prozac, Paxil) • cross from capillaries to neurons easily.* hijack “transporters” • * some can “slip” through without transporter This means that you can give a low dose (small amount) of the drug to get a good response But, if a drug doesn’t cross capillary membrane easily…? You have to give a lot of the drug (high dose) Much more likely to get nasty side effects
HIV/AIDS Most of the drugs used to treat HIV infection and AIDS don’t cross the blood-brain barrier easily 2. Brain Damage: Many “types” or “classes” of drug have a very, very hard time getting past the blood brain barrier So, if you are trying to treat a disease that affects the brain (as well as the rest of the body), the brain is especially likely to be damaged by the disease
Exception to the blood-brain barrier: • Area of brain that has “chemoreceptors” • to detect toxins that get in blood stream • The “vomit center” • a.k.a. “Area postrema” 2. A gland in CNS that controls several hormones
Intro to Brain Development Terminology 5 divisions of brain during “embryologic” development (first 8 weeks) 1 = Telencephalon 2 = Diencephalon 3 = Mesencephalon 4 = Metencephalon 5 = Myelencephalon 72 hr old chick
http://www.mcatzone.com/glosslet.php?letter=t Telencephalon (cerebral cortex, limbic system, basal ganglia): “thought”, emotion, motor control Diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus): sensory relay, homeostatic functions Mesencephalon (midbrain): tectum (dorsal) and tegmentum (floor) Metencephalon (pons and cerebellum): pons is fiber tracts, cerbellum is motor area Myelencephalon (medulla): efferent and afferent fiber tracts, “reticular formation” arousal, sleep, attention
3 main divisions in a “fetus” (8 weeks to birth) hindbrain midbrainforebrain metencephalonmesencephalontelencephalon myelencephalon diencephalon Back or end middle front Evolutionarily: “Old” “younger” “youngest” “Older” part of brain are more similar to lower animals than “young” ones
Forebrain – also known as the “cerebrum” Cerebral cortex Much larger portion of the total brain weight than seen in almost all other animals - allows for more cognitive ability and emotional range
The Forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon) largest part of the brain. Makes up 2/3 of entire organ. left and right cerebral hemispheres are separated by the longitudinal fissure Outermost covering = the cerebral cortex - gray matter: cell bodies and dendrites of neurons. Telencephalon 1. Cerebral cortex (outer portion) has four lobes with the following functions: Frontal- Primary motor cortex - Voluntary control of skeletal muscles; controls personality, intelligence, emotional control and speech. Temporal - Auditory cortex and olfactory cortex; Conscious perception of auditory, olfactory stimuli. Parietal - Primary sensory cortex; Conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temperature, and taste - controls sensory input Occipital - Visual cortex: Conscious control of visual stimuli.
parietal frontal occipital temporal Gyrus:raised ridge of tissue Sulcus:fissures or folds Fissure:large sulcus