Download
setting the stage for revolution absolute monarchies n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies

Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies

159 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies Warm Up: Define 1. divine right 2. absolute monarch

  2. Definitions 1. Divine Right: Belief that a ruler’s authority comes directly from God. 2. Absolute Monarch: Ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs.

  3. Absolute Monarchies in Europe1550-1800 • Spain • France • England • Austria • Prussia • Russia

  4. Absolute Monarchies in Europe1550-1800 From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

  5. Thirty Years’ War1618-1648 (page 427) • 1640: Holy Roman Empire has broken down into several Prussian (German) principalities. • Electors from the 7 major German states elect the Holy Roman emperor. Many other German states no longer recognize the power of the Holy Roman emperor. • 1641: Ferdinand of Bohemia (Hapsburg king) elected emperor. He is Anti – Protestant. Tried to return Prussia (Germany) to Catholicism. Spain, Poland supported Ferdinand. Protestant countries – Sweden, Netherlands – sent troops into Prussia to protect Protestants. France comes in on side of Sweden to protect Alsace from Prussian control. • Over thirty years alliances continually changed. • War led to starvation, famine and disease. Area severely depopulated. • 1648: Peace of Westphalia signed. France is clear winner, gains territory from Spain and Prussia, including Alsace. Prussia remains fragmented and Hapsburgs lose much power.

  6. From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

  7. The Philosopher Behind the Age • Thomas Hobbes • 1660 – Wrote the Leviathan (Giant) • Discussed the perfect government • People first lived in anarchy • Needed a “social contract” • Required an absolute monarch to maintain order • People retained the right only to maintain their lives.

  8. England - Pathway to Revolution1603-1689 • Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) – Absolute ruler of England. • Kept Parliament on her side. • Stabilized the nation and expanded British territory. • Died without an heir. • Country had to decide who would replace her.

  9. England - Pathway to Revolution1603-1689

  10. England – James I (1603 – 1625) • James VI of Scotland • Became James I of England when Elizabeth I died. • Believed in Divine Right of Kings. (page 435) “Kings are called gods because they sit upon God’s throne on earth. • Ran up a huge debt in England. • Had Bible translated from Latin into English

  11. England – Charles I1625 - 1649 • Charles I of England • Absolute monarch - had no problem with putting his enemies in prison without trial • Ran up a huge debt • Dissolved Parliament in 1629 • Touched off a massive English Civil War between supporters of Charles and supporters of Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell. • Charles I beheaded in 1649.

  12. England – Oliver Cromwell1649 - 1658 • Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector – England • Ruled through the army • Exiled Catholics to Ireland • Strict Puritan laws passed – theaters closed, Sunday set aside for worship, no lewd dancing, taverns or gambling • Religious freedom for everyone else • When Cromwell died, Restoration began.

  13. England – Charles IIThe Restoration1660 - 1685 • Charles II - Popular ruler • Monarchy restored – Hence: Restoration • Bowed to the wishes of Parliament • Restored the Church of England • Stabilized government

  14. England – James II1685 - 1688 • James II - Absolute Ruler • Antagonized Parliament • Ran up a huge debt • Openly Catholic • Forced from throne in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution. • Glorious Revolution

  15. England – William and MaryEnglish Bill of Rights1689 • William and Mary were given the throne after the English Bill of Rights was passed. • Guaranteed supremacy of Parliament over the monarchy. • Parliament had to meet on a regular basis • Monarchy could neither make nor suspend laws • Trial by jury reinstated. • Abolished fines and cruel and unusual punishment. • Affirmed “writ of habeas corpus” – no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime. Due process of laws. • Laid groundwork for American system of laws.

  16. The Philosophy Advances • John Locke • 1690 • People first lived in anarchy • Needed a “social contract” • People gave up only SOME of their individual rights. • Kept the right to: - Live - Enjoy Liberty - Own Property • Rulers who violated these rights broke the social contract and could be overthrown.

  17. France – Louis XIVRuled 1643 - 1715 • Called himself the Sun King • Believed in divine right. “L’etat, c’est moi.” I am the state. (page 417) • Made French army the strongest in Europe • France was the wealthiest country in Europe under Louis XIV • Louis XIV spent huge amounts of money • Built Versailles. (page 419) • War of Spanish Succession (page 420)

  18. France – Louis XIVVersailles • Expanded from a hunting lodge in 1669. • Became the symbol to European monarchs of the wealth and power of the king of France. • Seat of French government for nearly over 100 years. • Its upkeep consumed as much as 25% of the income of France.

  19. France – Louis XIVVersailles • Expanded from a hunting lodge in 1669. • Became the symbol to European monarchs of the wealth and power of the king of France. • Seat of French government for over 100 years. • Its upkeep consumed as much as 25% of the income of France. Hall of Mirrors

  20. Spain – Philip IIRuled 1556-1598 • Philip II - Sought to expand Spanish influence – ruled Spain when the empire was at its height. Included the Spanish New World (page 414) • Devout: tried to strengthen Catholic church • Centralized royal power • Married Mary I of England – returned England to Catholicism • Invaded England with Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I – He lost most of the Armada.

  21. Spain – Philip IIRuled 1556-1598

  22. Russia – Peter the GreatRuled 1682-1725 • Peter the Great of Russia • Goal was to westernize Russia. Forced powerful boyars to bow to his will. • Built modern Western city for Russian capital – St. Petersburg. • Spread serfdom. • Studied Western technology. Worked in a shipyard • Extended Russian territory – to Pacific Ocean. • 1700: Fought Sweden for control of Baltic. Gained several Baltic ports

  23. Russia – Peter the Great From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

  24. Austria – Maria Theresaruled 1740 - 1780 • Absolute monarch of Austria • Fought Frederick II of Prussia for control of Hungary and Silesia • Reorganized the government • Enlightened Despot • Eased tax burden on her people • Gave more rights to her subjects • Gave birth to 16 children while in power

  25. Prussia – Frederick IIRuled 1740-1786 • Absolute ruler of Prussia (Germany) • Attacked Austria, sparking the War of Austrian Succession • Unified Prussia, part of the Holy Roman Empire, into one nation

  26. Absolutism Summary ChartTextbook page 436 From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003