Muscle System Lizzy Menden Savannah Chase
Learning Target! Compare skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle cells and tissue. (knowledge)
True or False! • Skeletal is the only type of muscle cell that does not have striations? False! Smooth muscle is the only type of muscle cell that does not have striations. Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle have striations.
Match the Muscle Cell Type to its Description! • Smooth Muscle Cells • Cardiac Muscle Cells • Skeletal Muscle Cells • Irregular, Branching 150 µm • Cylindrical Up to 30 cm • Pointed on Ends 30-200 µm
Multiple Choice! • What muscle cell type has multiple nuclei per cell? • Smooth • Cardiac • Skeletal Smooth muscle has 1 nuclei per cell. Cardiac muscle cells have 1-2 nuclei per cell.
Match the Muscle Cell Type to the Contraction Description! • Smooth Muscle Cells • Cardiac Muscle Cells • Skeletal Muscle Cells • Involuntary and Slow • Voluntary, Quick, and Forceful • Involuntary and Rhythmic
Determine the Location of Muscle Cells in the Body! 1. 2. 3. Word Bank: Cardiac Muscle Cell, Skeletal Muscle Cell, Smooth Muscle Cell
Match the Muscle Cell name to the Picture of the Cell! Smooth Muscle Cell Skeletal Muscle Cell Cardiac Muscle Cell 1. 2. 3. Word Bank: Cardiac Muscle Cell, Skeletal Muscle Cell, Smooth Muscle Cell
Match each Muscle Tissue Type with its Function! Physiology • Facial expression, allows you to stand upright, aids in skeletal movement, communication, heat production • Contraction of hollow internal organs • Rhythmic contraction of the heart Anatomy • Smooth Muscle Tissue • Cardiac Muscle Tissue • Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Match each Muscle Tissue Type with its Function! Anatomy • Connective Tissue • Nervous Tissue • Blood Physiology • Supplies nutrients to the muscle tissue • Transmits impulses and messages • Forms tendons that attach to bones: holding skeleton together, forms fascia (separates, covers, and holds muscles in place
Learning Target! Identify the major parts of a skeletal muscle and the function of each part. (reasoning)
Sarcolemma • Muscle Fiber • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum • Fascia • Fascicle • Filaments • Nucleus • Endomysium • Skeletal Muscle • MyoFibril • Blood Vessel • Axon of Neuron • Tendon • Epimysium • Perimysium 4 5 6 7 9 • Bone 10 8 3 8 2 6 1 7 11 13 15 12 14 16 11
2 1 5 6 4 3 Word Bank: Sarcomere, Myosin Filament, Myofibril, Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Actin Filament *Note: #5 is pointing to the larger blue circles; #6 is pointing to the smaller red circles.
Label the Diagram of a Sarcomere! 4 4 line line 5 6 3 2 2 1 Word Bank: I-Band, Z-Line, Sarcomere, Myosin Filament, A-Band, Actin Filament
Nerve cell body 2 Axon 3 Axon Branches 4 Myofibril Synaptic Vesicles Folded Sarcolemma 1 9 Synaptic Cleft Mitochondria 6 Motor End Plate 7 10 5 Acetylcholine 8 Word Bank: Axon Branches, Motor End Plate, Axon, Synaptic Vesicles, Synaptic Cleft, Myofibril, Folded Sarcolemma, Mitochondria, Acetylcholine, Nerve Cell Body
Match the Structures to their Functions in a Muscle Contraction! • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum • Filaments • Mitochondria • Synaptic Vesicles • Stores acetylcholine • Protein strands important during contractions • Produces proteins, stores Calcium for contractions • Provides energy
Match the Structures to their Functions in a Muscle Contraction! • Synaptic Cleft • Acetylcholine • Axon • Motor End Plate • Specialized area of Sarcolemma that receives messages • Carries messages towards the myofibril • Gap between muscle fiber and axon • Chemical that causes a contraction
Learning Target! State the source of energy, cause, steps, and final results of a muscle fiber contraction. (knowledge)
Multiple Choice! • What chemical is released from a neuron to stimulate a muscle contraction? a. Calcium-Nitrate b. Acetylcholine c. Phosphorus d. Sodium Thiosulfate
Multiple Choice! • What is the energy source for a muscle contraction? a. ATP b. Glucose c. Batteries d. DNA
Put the Steps of Skeletal Muscle Contraction in Order! _2__ Myosin-Actin Binding (Actin and Myosin bind using energy from cleaved ATP) _5__ ATP Cleavage (Return to high energy state, cycle will repeat if Calcium is still available) _1__ Action Potential (Action potential releases Acetycholine and Calcium) _4__ ATP Binding and Actin-Myosin Release _3__ Power Stroke (Actin and Myosin slide by each other which shortens the sarcomere and releases ADP + P)
Multiple Choice! • What three physical changes take place in skeletal muscle when it contracts? a. Shortens in length b. Increases in length c. Decreases in diameter d. Increases in diameter e. Softens f. Hardens g. It turns red
Fill in the Blank! • Muscles cramp because there is a shortage of (water/ATP) causing your muscle to stay contracted. • After you die, when your body stiffens due to a sustained muscle contraction, you are suffering from (Rigor mortis/ Muscular dystrophy) which results from a high supply of Calcium ions and a lack of ATP production.
Learning Target! Interpret data from an electomyogram. (skill)
True or False! • An electromyogram, or EMG, is a graphical recording of electrical activity within muscles. True!
Interpret an EMG Graph! Which letter depicts a muscle contraction? Which letter depicts a muscle at rest? B A A B
Learning Target! Determine the effects of fatigue on muscle action. (skill)
Interpret Data from an Experiment! • Did fatigue affect the participant in the experiment? Yes or No
Learning Target! Investigate the relationship between bones, tendons, and muscles in producing body movements. (reasoning)
Multiple Choice! • What are tendons made of? a. Loose connective tissue b. Stretchy muscle c. Dense connective tissue d. Adipose tissue
True or False! • Tendons are important in body movement because they link muscle to muscle. False! Tendons attach muscle to bone.
Multiple Choice! • What do ligaments attach? • Muscle to tendon • Muscle to muscle • Bone to muscle • Bone to bone
Learning Target! Define the terms action, origin, and insertion. (knowledge)
Matching! • Action • Origin • Insertion • When muscle is attached to the relatively immovable end of the bone • Abduction of the leg • The end of the muscle that is attached to the movable bone
Learning Target! Explain the role of prime movers, antagonists, and synergists in producing body movements. (reasoning)
Fill in the Blank! • The muscle known as the (bulk muscle/ prime mover) provides most of the movement.
True or False! • Synergists are muscles that assist the prime mover, and antagonists oppose the action of the prime mover. True!
Fill in the Blank! • “For every muscle action there is an opposing action.” This is why we say muscles (act like a row boat/ work in pairs). Hint! For the test, be able to explain the phrase “muscles work in pairs.”
Learning Target! Use predetermined criteria and strategies for naming muscles. (reasoning)
Naming Muscles! • The TransversusAbdominis is named for its ______________ . Direction The muscle fibers of the TransversusAbdominis run perpendicular to the midline. Rectus and Oblique are also directional terms. Rectus meaning parallel to the midline and Oblique meaning diagonal to the midline. Word Bank: Direction, Location, Shape, Relative Size, Action, Location of Attachments, Number of Origins
Naming Muscles! • The Extensor Digitorum is named for its ______________ . Action The Extensor Digitorum is named because it helps perform the action of extending the digits. Levator and Flexor are also action terms. Levator meaning to elevate and Flexor meaning to flex. Word Bank: Direction, Location, Shape, Relative Size, Action, Location of Attachments, Number of Origins
Naming Muscles! • The Teres Major is named for its ______________ . Relative Size The Teres Major is named because it is large in comparison to its similar but smaller muscle, the Teres Minor. In addition to Major and Minor, other size terms include Maximus, Minimus, Medius, Longus, and Brevis. Maximus means largest, Minimus means smallest, Longus means longest, and Brevis means shortest. Word Bank: Direction, Location, Shape, Relative Size, Action, Location of Attachments, Number of Origins
Naming Muscles! Shape • The Deltoid is named for its _____________. The Deltoid is named because its triangular shape. Rhomboid, Serratus, and Platysma are also shape terms. Rhomboid meaning Diamond shaped,Serratus meaning Saw toothed, and Platysma meaning Flat. Word Bank: Direction, Location, Shape, Relative Size, Action, Location of Attachments, Number of Origins
Naming Muscles! • The Biceps Brachii is named for its ______________ . Number of Origins The Biceps Brachii is named because it has two origins. Tri is another term for number of origins meaning three origins. Word Bank: Direction, Location, Shape, Relative Size, Action, Location of Attachments, Number of Origins
Naming Muscles! • The Sternocleidomastoid is named for its __________________. Location of attachments The Sternocleidomastoid is named because of its attachment points at the Sternum, Clavicle, and Mastoid Process. Brachio and Radialis are also location of attachments terms. Brachio meaning attached at the upper arm and Radialis meaning attached at the radius. Word Bank: Direction, Location, Shape, Relative Size, Action, Location of Attachments, Number of Origins
Naming Muscles! Location • The VastusLateralis is named for its ___________ . The VastusLateralis is named for its lateral location in the body. Frontalis, Anterior, and Medialis are also location terms. Frontalis means near the frontal bone, Anterior means toward the anterior, and Medialis means located toward the midline. Lateral Midline Word Bank: Direction, Location, Shape, Relative Size, Action, Location of Attachments, Number of Origins
Learning Target! Identify major skeletal muscles and their actions. (reasoning)
Occipitalis • Frontalis • OrbicularisOculi • CorrugatorSupercilli • Nasalis • OrbiculrisOris • Depressor AnguliOris • Mentalis • Masseter • Sternocleido-mastoid • EpicranialAponeurosis • Temporalis 7 6 8 5 4 9 3 10 2 11 1 12
Label a Diagram of the Face! 5 6 4 3 7 2 1 Word Bank: Zygomaticius Major, Buccinator, Risorius, Platysma, LevatorLabiiSuperioris, Zygomaticus Minor, LevatorAnguliOris
1 9 5 6 2 7 3 8 4 Word Bank: Trapezius, Deltoid, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Teres Major, Rhomboid Major, LatissimusDorsi, External Oblique, Levator Scapulae, Supraspinatus