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Matter: PowerPoint Presentation

Matter:

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Matter:

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  1. Matter: It’s what the world’s made of.

  2. An atom refresher • Matter is anything that takes up space (or has volume) and has mass. • All matter is made of atoms • Atoms are the building blocks of matter, somewhat like how bricks are the building blocks of houses. www.powersof10.com

  3. The Atoms Family The Atoms Family was created by Kathleen Crawford, 1994Presentation developed by Tracy Trimpe, 2006, http://sciencespot.net/

  4. The Atoms Family Story Name: Patty Proton Description: Positive Favorite Activity: Hanging out at the Nucleus Arcade Name: Nelda Neutron Description: Neutral Favorite Activity: Hanging out at the Nucleus Arcade In the center of Matterville, there is a place called the Nucleus Arcade, where two members of the Atoms Family like to hang out. Perky Patty Proton, like her sisters, is quite large with a huge smile and eyes that sparkle (+). Patty is always happy and has a very positive personality. Nerdy Nelda Neutron is large like Patty, but she has a boring, flat mouth and eyes with zero expression (o). Her family is very apathetic and neutral about everything. Patty, Nelda, and their sisters spend all their time at the arcade.

  5. Name: Elliott Electron Description: Negative Favorite Activity: Racing around the arcade Around the Nucleus Arcade, you will find a series of roadways that are used by another member of the Atoms Family, Enraged Elliott Electron. Elliott races madly around the Arcade on his bright red chrome-plated Harley-Davidson. He rides so fast that no one can be sure where he is at any time. Elliott is much smaller than Patty and Nelda and he is always angry because these bigger relatives will not let him in the Arcade. He has a frown on his face, eyes that are squinted with anger, and a very negative (-) attitude.

  6. Energy Superhighway Can hold 18 electrons Energy Freeway Can hold 8 electrons Nucleus ArcadeContains protons & neutrons Energy Street Can hold 2 electrons The first energy street can only hold only two Electron brothers. The second energy street, called the Energy Freeway, can hold 8 brothers. The third energy street, called the Energy Superhighway, can hold 18 of the brothers. Matterville

  7. The morale of Matterville is stable as long as each negative Electron brother is balanced out by one positive Proton sister. The number of residents in Matterville depends on the Proton and Neutron families. Challenge: What would happen to the morale of Matterville if one Elliott Electron was kidnapped?

  8. Challenge 2: What would happen to the morale of Matterville if one Elliott Electron moved to Matterville?

  9. 1st Verse: They’re tiny and they’re teeny, Much smaller than a beany, They never can be seeny, The Atoms Family. Chorus 2nd Verse: Together they make gases, And liquids like molasses, And all the solid masses, The Atoms Family Chorus 3rd Verse: Neutrons can be found, Where protons hang around; Electrons they surround The Atoms Family. Chorus Chorus: They are so small. (Snap, snap) They’re round like a ball. (Snap, snap) They make up the air. They’re everywhere. Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap)

  10. protons protons neutrons The Atoms Family - Atomic Math Challenge Atomic Number Symbol Name Atomic Mass Atomic number equals the number of __________. Atomic mass equals the number of ___________ + _______________.

  11. Assignment: Finish the rest of the worksheet and turn it in to your teacher.

  12. Bohr Diagrams • Find your element on the periodic table. • Determine the number of electrons – it is the same as the atomic number. • This is how many electrons you will draw.

  13. Bohr Diagrams • Find out which period (row) your element is in. • Elements in the 1st period have one energy level. • Elements in the 2nd period have two energy levels, and so on. www.chem4kids.com

  14. Bohr Diagrams • Draw a nucleus with the element symbol inside. • Carbon is in the 2nd period, so it has two energy levels, or shells. • Draw the shells around the nucleus.

  15. Bohr Diagrams • Add the electrons. • Carbon has 6 electrons. • The first shell can only hold 2 electrons. c

  16. Bohr Diagrams • Since you have 2 electrons already drawn, you need to add 4 more. • These go in the 2nd shell. • Add one at a time -starting on the right side and going counter clock-wise. c

  17. Bohr Diagrams • Check your work. • You should have 6 total electrons for Carbon. • Only two electrons can fit in the 1st shell. • The 2nd shell can hold up to 8 electrons. • The 3rd shell can hold 18, but the elements in the first few periods only use 8 electrons. c

  18. Bohr Diagrams Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al • Ne • K C

  19. Bohr Diagrams Try the following elements on your own: • H – 1 electron • He • O • Al • Ne • K H

  20. Bohr Diagrams Try the following elements on your own: • H • He - 2 electrons • O • Al • Ne • K He

  21. Bohr Diagrams Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O - 8 electrons • Al • Ne • K O

  22. Bohr Diagrams Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al - 13 electrons • Ne • K Al

  23. Bohr Diagrams Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al • Ne - 10 electrons • K Ne

  24. Bohr Diagrams Try the following elements on your own: • H • He • O • Al • Ne • K - 19 electrons K

  25. Families on the Periodic Table • Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families based on their chemical properties. • Each family has a specific name to differentiate it from the other families in the periodic table. • Elements in each family react differently with other elements.

  26. ALKALI METALS Group 1 • Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non-metal • 1 electron in the outer shell • Soft and silvery metals • Very reactive, esp. with water • Conduct electricity Image: http://www.learner.org/interactives/periodic/groups2.html

  27. ALKALINE EARTH METALS Group 2 • 2 electrons in the outer shell • White and malleable • Reactive, but less than Alkali metals • Conduct electricity

  28. TRANSITION METALS Groups in the middle • Good conductors of heat and electricity. • Some are used for jewelry. • The transition metals are able to put up to 32 electrons in their second to last shell. • Can bond with many elements in a variety of shapes.

  29. BORON FAMILY Group 3 • 3 electrons in the outer shell • Most are metals • Boron is a metalloid

  30. CARBON FAMILY Group 4 • 4 electrons in the outer shell • Contains metals, metalloids, and a non-metal Carbon (C)

  31. NITROGEN FAMILY Group 5 • 5 electrons in the outer shell • Can share electrons to form compounds • Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals

  32. OXYGEN FAMILY Group 6 • 6 electrons in the outer shell • Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metals • Reactive

  33. Halogens Group 7 • 7 electrons in the outer shell • All are non-metals • Very reactive are often bonded with elements from Group 1 • Can you guess why?

  34. Noble Gases Group 8 • Exist as gases • Non-metals • 8 electrons in the outer shell = Full • Helium (He) has only 2 electrons in the outer shell = Full • Not reactive with other elements

  35. Rare Earth Metals • Some are Radioactive • The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals. • Conduct electricity

  36. Lewis Structures • Find your element on the periodic table. • Determine the number of valence electrons. • This is how many electrons you will draw.

  37. Lewis Structures • Find out which group (column) your element is in. • This will tell you the number of valence electrons your element has. • You will only draw the valence electrons. www.chem4kids.com

  38. Group 8 = 8 electrons Groups - Review Except for He, it has 2 electrons Group 1 = 1 electron Group 2 = 2 electrons • Each column is called a “group” 3,4,5,6,7 • Each element in a group has the same number of electrons in their outer orbital, also known as “shells”. • The electrons in the outer shell are called “valence electrons” www.chem4kids.com

  39. Lewis Structures • Write the element symbol. • Carbon is in the 4th group, so it has 4 valence electrons. • Starting at the right, draw 4 electrons, or dots, counter-clockwise around the element symbol. C

  40. Lewis Structures On your worksheet, try these elements on your own: • H • P • Ca • Ar • Cl • Al C

  41. Lewis Structures On your worksheet, try these elements on your own: • H • P • Ca • Ar • Cl • Al H

  42. Lewis Structures On your worksheet, try these elements on your own: • H • P • Ca • Ar • Cl • Al P

  43. Lewis Structures On your worksheet, try these elements on your own: • H • P • Ca • Ar • Cl • Al Ca

  44. Lewis Structures On your worksheet, try these elements on your own: • H • P • Ca • Ar • Cl • Al Ar

  45. Lewis Structures On your worksheet, try these elements on your own: • H • P • Ca • Ar • Cl • Al Cl

  46. Lewis Structures On your worksheet, try these elements on your own: • H • P • Ca • Ar • Cl • Al Al

  47. CATION ANION Answer these questions: An atom that gains one or more electrons will have a ____________________ charge. An atom that loses one or more electrons will have a ____________________ charge. An atom that gains or loses one or more electrons is called an ____________. A positive ion is called a ______________ and a negative ion is called an _______________. NEGATIVE POSITIVE ION Compounds are formed by chemical bonds.

  48. What is an ionic bond? “One wants to gain electrons, one wants to lose electrons” Atoms will transfer one or more ________________ to another to form the bond. Each atom is left with a ________________ outer shell. An ionic bond forms between a ___________ ion with a positive charge and a ________________ ion with a negative charge. ELECTRONS COMPLETE METAL NONMETAL