Matter Notes Elements vs. Compounds Organic vs. Inorganic
Matter Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter can be big or small. All matter is composed of atoms.
Elements Elements are pure substances. They have defined properties.The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element is called an atom. Atoms of the same elements are alike; atoms of different elements are different.
Chemical Symbols A shorthand way of representing the elements. Usually one or two letters. If two letters, the first is capital and the second is lower case. Usually taken from the name of the element (H=Hydrogen) or from the Latin name of the element (Au=Gold which is aurum in Latin)
Compounds Compounds are pure substances made up of more than one element. The two or more elements that make up a compound are chemically combined. Unlike elements, compounds can be broken down to simpler substances by chemical reactions. The properties of the elements that make up a compound are often different from the properties of the compound itself.
Inorganic Compounds Inorganic compounds are NOT made by living organisms. They usually do not contain Carbon. Example of inorganic compounds include elements – such as calcium and sodium, water, salts, and rocks.
Organic Compounds Organic compounds have carbon and hydrogen as their primary structural component. The are made by living organisms. There are four major classes of organic compounds: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of food and energy for organisms. Examples include simple sugars such as glucose or large, complex molecules such as starch.
Lipids Lipids are a class of molecules that don’t like to mix with water! They include steroids, oils, waxes and fats. They are the source of food and energy for humans. Our bodies store excess food as fats and converts it back to carbohydrates when needed
Proteins Proteins are required for the structure, function and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues and organs. They make up most of the human body’s structural parts and enzymes (chemicals that aid chemical reactions such as digestion)
Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are used in the DNA of all life forms to store genetic information.