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States of Matter Notes

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  1. States of Matter Notes Created in 2006/2010 by Tim F. Rowbotham

  2. States of Matter Notes • Journal #4 • Describe what you see when manipulating the Cartesian Diver. • On your own time research why the Cartesian Diver works. Record in your journal.

  3. Important Measurements Mass – the amount of matter that makes up an object Volume – the amount of space an object occupies Density – a ratio of mass to volume (D = m / V)

  4. Important Definitions Matter – anything that has mass and volume Energy – ability to do work or cause change Kinetic Energy – the energy an object has due to its motion

  5. State of Matter Materials are classified in different states (or phases) of matter based on composition and temperature. There are currently 5 accepted states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, plasma, and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  6. Kinetic Theory The kinetic theory states that all matter is made of tiny particles that are in constant motion. It explains the characteristics (or properties) of matter in terms of the energy of these particles

  7. The atoms in a solid are heldclosetogether by strong forces of attraction The atoms have verylow kinetic energy The atoms seem to vibrate, but do not move around Kinetic Theory & Solids

  8. Solids have a definite shape Solids have a definite volume Solids

  9. Learning Checks • READY YOUR REMOTE

  10. Scientists currently categorize matter into how many states? • 3 • 4 • 5 • 10

  11. “All matter is made out of tiny particles that are in constant motion.” This is called • Newton’s Law • Particle theory • The theory of relativity • The kinetic theory

  12. Atoms in a solid are • Close to one another • Far away from other atoms • Always the same distance apart

  13. Atoms in a solid move • A lot • Very little • According to the theory of relativity

  14. Atoms are arranged in repeating geometric patterns Considered “true” solids & tend to hold their shape Examples: salt, ice, diamonds, sugar, aluminum, graphite Crystalline Solids

  15. Draw atoms of a Crystalline Solid

  16. Draw atoms of a Crystalline Solid

  17. Atoms have norepeating pattern Amorphous means “withoutform” Same properties as crystalline solids, but have no distinct meltingpoint Examples: glass, wax, plastic,styrofoam, coal, rubber Amorphous Solids

  18. Draw atoms of an Amorphous Solid

  19. Draw atoms of an Amorphous Solid

  20. Examples of Crystalline & Amorphous Solids

  21. Examples of Crystalline & Amorphous Solids

  22. Examples of Crystalline Solids Carbon nanotube

  23. Examples of Crystalline Solids Table Salt

  24. Examples of Crystalline Solids

  25. Examples of Crystalline Solids

  26. Examples of Crystalline Solids

  27. Learning Checks • READY YOUR REMOTE

  28. A crystalline solid has atoms that • Move a lot • Are arranged in a repeating pattern • Are randomly arranged • Do not move

  29. An amorphous solid has atoms that • Move a lot • Are arranged in a repeating pattern • Are randomly arranged • Do not move

  30. “All matter is made out of tiny particles that are in constant motion.” This is called • Newton’s Law • Particle theory • The kinetic theory • The theory of relativity

  31. Create a table with 3 columns: Material, Drawing, & Crystalline or Amorphous Draw what you see under the microscope & classify it as crystalline or amorphous Crystalline or Amorphous?

  32. Classwork/Homework • TURN IN YOUR Crystalline/Amorphous TABLE • CW/HW: P.8-9 “Solids, Liquids, & Gases” • RETURN YOUR REMOTE

  33. JOURNAL # 5 • Use a Venn Diagram to show the difference between crystalline & amorphous solids.

  34. Entrance Questions • READY YOUR REMOTE

  35. A crystalline solid has atoms that • Move a lot • Are arranged in a repeating pattern • Are randomly arranged • Do not move

  36. “All matter is made out of tiny particles that are in constant motion.” This is called • Newton’s Law • Particle theory • The kinetic theory • The theory of relativity

  37. The forces of attraction between atoms in a liquid are notstrongenough to hold them together Atoms in a liquid are close, but have enough kinetic energy to rollover and around each other Kinetic Theory & Liquids

  38. Because its atoms move over and around each other, a liquid has the ability to flow. Liquids do not have definite shape; liquids take the shape of their container Liquids have a definite volume. Liquids

  39. Draw Atoms in a Liquid

  40. Atoms in a gas have highenough kinetic energy that they are not held by the attractive forces of other atoms Atoms in a gas may be spreadfarapart and may collide with each other with great force Kinetic Theory & Gases

  41. Because atoms in a gas move around a lot, gases have nodefinite shape or volume Gases take the shape of their container but also can be compressed Gases

  42. Draw Atoms in a Gas

  43. Learning Checks • READY YOUR REMOTE

  44. “All matter is made out of tiny particles that are in constant motion.” This is called • Newton’s Law • Particle theory • The kinetic theory • The theory of relativity

  45. Which of the following has atoms that are still close together but have enough energy to roll over and around each other? • Solid • Liquid • Gases • Plasma

  46. Which of the following has atoms that are far apart and move rapidly? • Solids • Liquids • Gases • Bose-Einstein condensates

  47. Which of the following has atoms that are close together and vibrate in place? • Solid • Liquid • Gases • Plasma

  48. States of Matter • States of Matter Video Clip • States of Matter Song

  49. JOURNAL #6 • USE THE KINETIC THEORY to explain what happens to the T1000.

  50. Atoms in a plasma have extremelyhigh kinetic energy Atoms in a plasma collide with such great force that the electrons are knockedout of the atoms Kinetic Theory & Plasmas