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States of Matter

States of Matter

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States of Matter

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  1. States of Matter Matter - anything that has mass and volume

  2. States of Matter aka PHASES • There are 5 states of matter • Liquid • Solid • Gas • Plasma • Bose-Einstein Condensates • The three most familiar are • Liquds • Solids • Gasses • The state of a sample of matter depends on its TEMPERATURE

  3. Solids • Has DEFINATE shape and volume • Shape and volume do NOT change when put in different containers • Particles are very close to each other • Two types of solids • Crystalline • Noncrystalline

  4. Crystalline Solids • Crystals: arrangements of particles in repeating geometric patterns • Particles vibrate in fixed positions • Very rigid and have specific melting points • EX: snowflake is a crystal of water, ice, salt

  5. Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Solids • Particles are NOT arranged in crystal patterns. • Noncrystalline or amorphous • Solids NOT as rigid as crystalline solids. It is easier to change shape. • As you heat them gradually melt • EX: glass, plastics, some kinds of waxes

  6. Liquids • Have definite volume but not shape (take shape of their containers) • Flows and takes the shape of its container • Particles are farther apart than solids and move faster • Particles close together but have enough KINETIC ENERGY to move over and around each other • Allows liquids to flow and take shape of its container

  7. Liquids Graduated Cylinder Flask Beaker Changes shape, but is always 45mL

  8. Liquids • Liquids will flow and can be described by viscosity • Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow. Thicker liquids are more viscous than thinner liquids

  9. Gases • NO definite shape OR volume • Take shape and volume of their containers • Particles are far apart and move fast • Particles are always bumping into each other and bouncing away • As they hit the sides of their container, they exert pressure • As you heat a gas, the particles move faster and have more collisions and the pressure increases

  10. Solids, Liquids, Gases

  11. Plasma • Very high energy, electrically charged gas • Positively and negatively charged • It makes up most of the matter in the universe • Sun and other stars are made of plasma • As matter is heated to very high temps. The particle begin to collide violently & as a result the particles break up into smaller pieces • These pieces are electrically charged

  12. Plasma • EX: light from sun lightning fluorescent light - electricity causes particles of mercury gas inside tube to form plasma

  13. Bose-Einstein Condensates • Extremely low temperature fluids • Have properties that are not completely understood, such as spontaneously flowing out of their containers • Exist only at temperatures close to absolute zero 0 K or -273°C

  14. State Changes • During a state change, the temperature stops changing. • When the state change is complete, the temperature will change again

  15. Gas Laws • Boyles Law • When you increase the pressure on a gas, the volume decreases • this is an inverse relationship. As one factor increases, the other one decreases • Formula: • P1V1 = P2V2

  16. Boyles Law Example • The pressure on a balloon is 50 Pascals and its volume is 200cm3. If the pressure is increased to 75 Pascals, what is the new volume of the balloon? P1V1 = P2V2 (50Pa)(200cm3) = (75Pa)V2 133cm3 = V2

  17. Evaporation • Occurs when a few particles at the surface of a liquid escape and turn into a gas. When they escape, they take heat with them • Example • Sweat

  18. Boiling • Occurs when the entire liquid starts changing into a gas, not just at the surface. • You will see bubbles

  19. Sublimation • Occurs when a solid turns into a gas without going through the liquid phase first • Examples • Dry ice • Moth balls • Solid room deodorizers

  20. State Change Graph

  21. Charles Law • As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume also increases • This is a direct relationship. As one factor increases, the other one also increases. • As you heat a gas, it expands • Formula: V1= V2 T1 T2

  22. Charles Law Practice • When the temperature of a gas is 120°C, its volume is 40cm3. What is its volume if the temperature is increased to 150°C? Solution: