3-1 Solids, liquids and gases • Materials can be classified as ________, ________, or_______based on whether their shapes and volumes are definite or variable
Solids • _______ is the state of matter in which materials have a definite_____ and a definite _______ • ________ = the shape and volume will not change ( ex: a pencil) • Particles in a solid are packed _________together.
Liquids • ___________ is the state of matter in which a material has a definite volume but _______ a definite shape • Ex: juices in different shaped bottles • Particles are_______ together but have a little room to move
Gases • _______ is the state of matter in which material has _______ a definite shape______ a definite volume • Gas takes the shape and volume of its________
Kinetic Theory • ________ energy is the energy an object has due to its motion • The _______ an object moves, the greater the kinetic energy • The kinetic theory of matter says that all particles of matter are in ___________motion
Explaining the Behavior of Gases • The particles in a _____ are never at rest. • There are ______ of_________ among the particles in all matter • Particles in a gas are moving fast and the attractions are too______ to have an effect
Kinetic Theory of Gases • The constant motion of particles in a gas allows a gas to _______ a container of any shape or size • Ex: _______in a _____
Three Key Points to Kinetic Theory of gases • Particles in a gas are in_________,_______ ________ • The motion of one particle is unaffected by the motion of other particles unless the particles __________ • ________ of attraction among particles in a gas can be ignored under ordinary conditions
Explaining the Behavior of Liquids • A ______ takes the shape of its container because particles in a liquid can flow to______ locations. • The _______ of a liquid is constant because forces of attraction keep the particles close together. • _________ in a liquid are more closely packed than gases
Explaining the Behavior of Solids • _________ have a definite volume and shape because particles in a solid vibrate around ______ locations • __________ is a repetitive back and forth motion • _________ attractions among atoms restrict their motion.
Teacher Demo • Which container has the largest volume of water?
Beaker Breaker Partner Activity • Explain how the behavior of popcorn in a popcorn popper can be used as an analogy for the motion of gas particles
Beaker Breaker Activity A hazardous chemical is leaking from a tank truck. Rescue workers need to evacuate people who live near the accident. Why are more people likely to be affected if the chemical is a gas, rather than a liquid?
Beaker Breaker • Explain why a solid has a definite shape and volume • How is a gas able to fill a container of any size or shape?
3-2 The Gas Laws • ___________is the result of the force distributed over an area. • Ex: A puck hitting glass • ____________ between particles of a gas and the walls of the container cause the pressure in a closed container of gas. • The more frequent the collisions, the _________ the pressure of the gas.
Factors that Affect Gas Pressure • Factors that affect the pressure of an enclosed gas are its • __________ • __________ • ___________
Temperature • Raising the temperature of a gas will increase its pressure if the volume of the gas and the number of particles are constant • _______ and__________ increase • _____________and_____________ are constant • Ex. Tires after driving
Volume • Reducing the__________ of a gas increases its _________ if the temperature of the gas and the number of particles are ________ • ________decrease/_________ increase • Temp and number of particles are ________
Number of Particles • Increasing the_______________will increase the pressure of a gas if the temperature and volume are constant • Increase ___________/increase_______ • _________and_________ are constant • Ex Tire will burst
Charles’s law • States that the volume of a gas is____________ proportional to its temperature in Kelvins if the pressure and the number of particles is of the gas are constant. V1 =V2 T1 T2
Boyle’s Law • Boyle’s law states that the volume of a gas is____________proportional to its pressure if the temperature and the number of particles are constant • P1V1 = P2V2
Combined Gas Law • The relationship described by_______ Law and_________ Law can be described by a single law called the combined gas law. • P1V1= P2V2 T1 T2
Math Problems Practice • Page 80 number 1, 2 and 3
Beaker Breaker • 2 liters of hydrogen gas are stored at a pressure of 100kPa. If the temperature does not change, what will the volume of the gas be when the pressure is decreased to 25kPa? • Show your work by using the gas laws we learned yesterday
Beaker Breaker • Name two of the common phase changes. • The temperature of a substance does _______change during a phase change
3-3 Phase Changes • A _____________ is the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from_______ state of matter to_______
6 common phase changes • _________ • _________ • _________ • _________ • _________ • _________
Temperature and Phase changes • The temperature of a substance does _______change during a phase change
Energy and Phase Changes • Energy is either_______ or ________ during a phase change • During an _______________, the system absorbs energy from its surroundings. • ______________is the energy a substance must absorb in order to change from a _________to a ________ • During an ______________, the system releases energy to its surroundings
Melting and Freezing • The arrangement of molecules in water becomes_______ orderly as water melts and _______ orderly as water freezes • _________ is completed when all the molecules have enough energy to move. • _________ is completed when all the molecules have been drawn into an orderly arrangement.
Vaporization and Condensation • The______________ in which a substance change from a _____ to a_______ is vaporization • The__________________is the energy a substance must absorb in order to change from a liquid to a gas.
Evaporation • __________ takes place at the surface of a liquid and occurs at temperatures below the boiling point • __________ is the pressure caused by the collisions of this vapor and the walls of the container. • When the vapor pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure, water _______
Condensation • ___________ is the phase change in which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid • Ex: dew on grass
Sublimation and Deposition • ______________ is the phase change in which the substance changes from a solid to a gas • Ex :Dry Ice • When a gas or vapor changes________ into a solid without first changing to a liquid is called____________ • Ex: _________ on windows