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States of Matter

States of Matter

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States of Matter

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  1. States of Matter

  2. Solids • Neither take the shape or volume of container • Atoms are very close together • Not very compressible • Atoms vibrate in place but don’t “get anywhere”

  3. Liquids • Take the shape but not the volume of container • Atoms are very close together • Not very compressible • Molecules can “get around” • This produces diffusion

  4. Gases • Take shape and volume of container • Molecules are far apart • So gases are compressible • Molecules moving about 1000 mph • Molecules can “get around” quickly • So gases also show diffusion • Gas pressure is molecules colliding with walls of container

  5. Liquid Crystals • Intermediate phase • Between liquid and solid • It is a liquid, but has crystalline properties • Used extensively in LCD’s

  6. Molecules • Group of 2 or more atoms bound together • Diatomic, triatomic, etc → billions of atoms • Homoatomic – O2, H2, N2 • Heteroatomic – H2O, NH3, CO2, CO • Limit of physical subdivision • Smallest unit of a compound • 10 million known + 7000/week • Natural vs synthetic • Diatomic or polyatomic

  7. Chemical Formulas • Specify composition of substance • Symbols with subscripts • For ionic compounds (non-molecular or extended network) – gives ratio • If parentheses, treat like math Assumed - 1

  8. Metals • Some can be quite toxic • Mercury • Nickel • Some thought to be toxic have been found to be essential to life in small quantities • Chromium

  9. Alloys • Mostly solid solutions – homogeneous mixtures • Two main kinds • Interstitial alloys – steel • Substitutional alloys – brass and bronze

  10. Alloys • Mostly solid solutions – homogeneous mixtures • Two main kinds • Interstitial alloys – steel • Substitutional alloys – brass and bronze • Non-homogeneous • Small crystals • Like solder

  11. Websites of Interest • Do some exploring

  12. H3 – C1 • 14-16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 28, 34, 44, 47, 48, 55