States of Matter By, KianaJones and Stephanie Amichia
What you need to know! • Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. • These are all the physical forms in which a substance can exist. • Ex. Water: ice, liquid, gas
More stuff that you need to know!! :]] • Moving particles make up all matter: • Matter consists of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. • These atoms molecules are always in motion bumping into one another. • The state of matter of a substance is determined by how fast the particles move and how strongly they are attracted to one another.
Liquids • A liquid will take the shape of whatever container it is put in. • -the state in which matter takes shape of it’s container and has definite volume=liquid • The atoms or molecules in liquids move fast enough to overcome some of the attractions between them. The particles then slide past each other until the liquid takes the shape of the container.
Liquids Con’t • Even though liquids change shape, they do not readily change volume. • Ex- a soda will fill up the same amount of a container, no matter what it is in.
liquids continued Properties of a liquid: Surface Tension-theforce acting on the particles at the surface of a liquid that causes the liquid to form spherical drops Viscosity- a liquids resistance to flow. The stronger the attraction between a liquids particles are, the more viscous a liquid is. Ex- Honey vs water- honey pours more slowly because it has a higher viscosity.
You have gas?? • Gas- is the state in which matter changes in both state and volume. Gas spreads out leaving space in between particles. • Gas under pressure- pressure, the amount of force exerted on a given area. • Boyles’s Law- a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature. The volume of gas increases as its pressure increases.
Gas continued • Charles Law- states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as its temperature increases.
Plasma • Plasma- Is the state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume and who’s particles have broken apart. • Plasma conducts electric currents while gases do not. Electric and magnetic fields affect plasmas-not gases. • Neutral plasmas are found in lightning and the Northern Lights. Artificial plasmas are found in fluorescent lights.
Changes of State • changes of state is the conversion of a substance from one physical form to another. A change of state is a physical change. • During a change of state, the energy of a substance changes. The energy of the substance is directly related to the motion of the particles • the molecules of water move faster than the molecules of ice, therefore liquid water has more energy than ice. • if energy is added to a substance, its particles begin to move even faster. Ex- adding heat to ice, causing it to melt. • If energy is removed, then the particles slow down.