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States of Matter

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  1. States of Matter Chap. 13

  2. Gases State of matter in which particles are separated by large distances.

  3. Gases • Gas properties

  4. Gases • Gas properties • Gases have mass

  5. Gases • Gas properties • Gases have mass • Gases occupy space

  6. Gases • Gas properties • Gases have mass • Gases occupy space • Gases completely fill their containers

  7. Gases • Gas properties • Gases have mass • Gases occupy space • Gases completely fill their containers • Gases have low density

  8. Gases • Gas properties • Gases can be compressed & expanded

  9. Gases • Gas properties • Gases can be compressed & expanded • Gases exert pressure

  10. Gases • Gas properties • Gases can be compressed & expanded • Gases exert pressure • Gases diffuse & effuse

  11. Gases • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) An explanation of why gases behave the way they do.

  12. Gases • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) • Gases consist of tiny particles in constant motion

  13. Gases • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) • Gases consist of tiny particles in constant motion • Gas particles travel in straight line until they collide with other particles or the container

  14. Gases • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) • Gas particles are separated by relatively large spaces

  15. Gases • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) • Gas particles are separated by relatively large spaces • The kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature KE = ½ mv2

  16. Gases • Diffusion Spreading out of particles (high to low concentration)

  17. Gases • Diffusion • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel.

  18. Gases • Diffusion • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel. • Cold particles travel _____ than warm particles.

  19. Gases • Diffusion • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel. • Cold particles travel slower than warm particles. • Small particles travel _____ than small particles.

  20. Gases • Diffusion • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel. • Cold particles travel slower than warm particles. • Small particles travel faster than small particles.

  21. Gases • Diffusion • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel. • Graham found that the diffusion rate was inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass.

  22. Graham’s Law √ RateA Molar mass B = RateB Molar mass A

  23. Measuring Gases • Gas Pressure

  24. Measuring Gases • Gas Pressure • Pressure is force per area P = F/A

  25. Measuring Gases • Gas Pressure • Pressure is force per area • The atmosphere exerts pressure

  26. Measuring Gases • Gas Pressure • Pressure is force per area • The atmosphere exerts pressure • Pressure units

  27. Equivalent Pressure units 1.00 atmosphere (atm) 101325 pascals (Pa) 101.325 kilopascals (kPa) 760 __________ (mm Hg) 760 torricelli (torr) 14.7 pounds per square inch (___)

  28. Measuring Gases • Gas Pressure • Pressure is force per area • The atmosphere exerts pressure • Pressure units • Converting pressure

  29. Self Check – Ex. 1 A container of gas has a pressure of 50 atm. What is this pressure in psi?

  30. Self Check – Ex. 2 What is the pressure in pascals of a gas sample that is 140 kPa?

  31. Measuring Gases • Instruments

  32. Measuring Gases • Instruments • Barometer Measures atmospheric pressure.

  33. Measuring Gases • Instruments • Barometer • Mercury Image: Dr. Leon L. Combs Atmosphere ‘holds up’ a column of mercury

  34. Measuring Gases • Instruments • Barometer • Mercury • Aneroid Image: Australian BOM Name means ‘without liquid’

  35. CO2 22 mm Hg • Measuring Gases • Instruments • Barometer • Manometer Measures pressure of an enclosed gas

  36. Measuring Gases • Instruments • Barometer • Manometer • Example calculations

  37. Self Check – Ex. 3 What is the pressure of the CO2 gas pictured below? Atmospheric pressure is 755 mmHg. CO2 22 mm Hg

  38. 65 mm He Hg Self Check – Ex. 4 What is the pressure of the helium gas pictured below? Atmospheric pressure is 1.1 atm.

  39. The End