States of Matter Chapter 3
Four States of Matter • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma
Matter First, we must review that all matter is made of atoms and molecules that are TOO small to be seen with the naked eye.
Solids Have definiteshape and volume • Particles are very close together and they are strongly attracted to one another
Solids Continued There are 2 Types of Solids: 1. Crystalline 2. Amorphous
Crystalline vs. Amorphous • Crystalline solids have repeating patterns of atoms, like diamonds or salt • Amorphous solids have no real order to how the atoms are arranged, like rubber or wax
Liquids Change Shape but NOT Volume • The molecules move more quickly than in a solid, but slower than in a gas • They take the shape of the container they are placed in.
2 Key Properties of Liquids • Surface tension: is what holds a liquid together…it is what causes water droplets to be round or allow a paperclip to float on water although it is more dense than water
Gases Change BOTHShape and Volume • Gases fill the container that they are in.
Gases Under Pressure • Pressure is the amount of force exerted on a given area.
Boyle’s Law states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas increases as its pressure decreases.
Charles’ Law States that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as temperature increases.
Plasmas • Have NO definite shaper OR Volume • They conduct electrical current • They exist in the sun, fire, lighting and the aurora borealis • May make up 90% of the universe
Quiz • What are the four states of matter? • Which of the following best describes the particles of a liquid? a. The particles are far apart and moving fast. b. The particles are close together and moving past each other. c. The particles are far apart and moving slowly. d. The particles are closely packed and vibrating in place. 3. _____________ have a definite shape and volume.
Changes in State A change in state is a conversion of a substance from one form to another.
Temperature Is a measure of the speed of the particles in matter. The more energy, the more the molecules move and the higher the temperature.
Melting Is a change from a solid to a liquid. Heat is gained (Endothermic). Ex. Chocolate on a hot day.
Freezing Is a change from a liquid to a solid. Heat is lost (exothermic). Ex. Water turning to ice in the freezer.
Vaporization A substance changes from a liquid to a gas. Heat is gained (endothermic). Ex. Water turning to steam on the stove.
Condenstation A substance changes from a gas to a liquid. Heat is lost (exothermic). Dew forming on grass or moisture on the outside of a pop can. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-4875804498445482796#
Sublimation When a substance goes directly from a solid to a gas. Heat is gained (endothermic). Ex. Dry Ice
Temperature vs. State of Matter Temperature does NOT change until the change of state is complete! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvrJgGhnmJo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9WYweBA6vA
Quiz • Boiling points and freezing points are examples of _________ properties. a. Chemical b. Physical • When a substance loses energy and goes from a solid to a liquid is has: • Melted • Boiled • Frozen • Evaporated 3. _________ reactions lose heat, while _______ reactions gain heat. a. Exothermic, Endothermic b. Endothermic, Temperature c. Temperature, Exothermic d. Endothermic, Exothermic