States of Matter What is Matter?
What is Matter? • Matter: Anything that has volume and mass. • Volume: The amount of space an object takes up. If something takes up space it is matter. • Mass: The amount of matter (stuff) in an object. • Density: the amount of matter in a given volume.
WhAt ThIngS ArE MaDe Of MaTteR? The desks The tables The dust on the counter Our clothes Our books Us Everything is made of matter
Calculating Volume • Liquid Volume: • Graduated Cylinder • Solid Volume: - Regular Shape; measure and calculate • Irregular Shape: Volume by Displacement
Density • The amount of matter in a given volume • Density = mass divided by volume D =M V • Density can be used to identify substances The density is the same regardless of the size of the object. Mass = 193.2g Volume = 10 cm3 Mass = 96.6g Volume = 5.0 cm3 Mass = 48.3g Volume = 2.5 cm3
Characteristic Properties • A quality of a substance that never changes and can be used to identify the substance. (Also called physical property) • These properties include: • - Melting Point • Boiling Point • Thermal Conductivity • Electrical Conductivity • Solubility • Hardness • Density • - Malleability • Ductility
3 States of Matter • Solids • Liquids • Gases
Solids Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position. Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. Solids do not flow easily because the particles cannot move/slide past one another
Liquids Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another. Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume. Liquids flow easily because the particles can move/slide past one another.
Gases Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely. Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. Gases flow very easily because the particles randomly move past one another.