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Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter

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Classification of Matter

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  1. Homogeneous Looks same throughout Elements Compounds Some mixtures ex: koolaid Heterogeneous Parts can be seen Some mixtures Ex: rocky road ice cream Classification of Matter

  2. Mixtures2+ elements, compounds or bothfairly easily dividedproportions can varyretain properties Elements • Single substance • Can’t be divided • Unique properties • Representative particle is atom Compounds • 2 + elements • Not easily divided • Chemically bonded • Same proportions • New properties • Representative particle is molecule

  3. Mixtures Solutions Colloids Suspensions < 1 nm > 1nm < 1000 nm > 1000 nm Do not settle out do not settle out settle out No Tyndall effect Tyndall effect Tyndall effect

  4. Solute substance dissolved least amount can be: solid liquid gas Solvent dissolving medium largest amount can be: solid liquid gas Universal solvent is water Parts of solution solute + solvent = solution

  5. electrolyte conducts electricity ions ionic bonds Ex: salt in water nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity no source of ions covalent bonds Ex: sugar in water Nature of solutions Na+ C12H22O11 C12H22O11 Na+ Cl- Cl- Na+ Cl- C12H22O11

  6. Rates of solution To speed up the rate of solution- • Increase surface area • Agitate • Heat solvent

  7. Solubility Curve • What is the general trend for solids? • What is the general trend for gases?

  8. unsaturated solution- solution with less than the maximum amount of solute saturated solution-solution with the maximum amount of solute dissolved in it. supersaturated solution-solution with more than the maximum amount of solute dissolved in it. Solubility-amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent

  9. Solubility rules soluble insoluble sodium potassium ammonium nitrates acetates chlorates chlorides except for silver lead mercury sulfates except for calcium barium strontium lead sodium except for carbonates potassium phosphates ammonium silicates group I cations except for sulfides group II cations

  10. Dissociation equations Show dissociation of ions in solution If the substance is not soluble, it will not dissociate

  11. NH4NO3 (s) CaSO4 (s) Sr(NO3)2 (s) PbSO4 (s) KC2H3O2 (s) AlCl3 (s) AgCl (s)

  12. Net ionic equations • Show only the species involved in the reaction. • 3 steps • Write the complete molecular equation • Write the complete ionic equation (dissociation) • Write the net ionic equation. (cancel spectator ions)

  13. ammonium sulfate + barium chloride  sodium sulfate + nickel II sulfate  iron II sulfate + sodium acetate 

  14. Zinc chloride + ammonium sulfide  Silver acetate + magnesium chloride  Ammonium chloride + sodium acetate 