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Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter

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Classification of Matter

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  1. Classification of Matter

  2. Matter • Most everything is composed of Matter (atom). • Exception photons, light. • Can be grouped into four categories: • (1) Elements. • (2) Compounds. • (3) Pure Substances. • (4) Mixtures. Classification of Matter

  3. Elements • The universe is made up of 103 basic substances or elements. • Each element contains only one type of atom. • Elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Classification of Matter

  4. Elements Oxygen element (O2) Hydrogen element (H2) Classification of Matter Examples

  5. Elements Analogy: Like letters in the alphabet. Each letter is like an ‘element’ with unique characteristics (form & sound). Oxygen has its own characteristics (mass, necessary for fire, …) Hydrogen is very light and makes a popping sound in the presence of fire and air. Classification of Matter

  6. Compound • A substance composed of two or more elements. • Atoms of two or more elements chemically combine to form a new substance. • Compounds can be reduced to simpler substances through chemical reactions. Classification of Matter

  7. Compound • Examples: • Hydrogen (gas) + Oxygen (gas) → Water (liquid) • 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2 H2O (l) • Sodium (soft shiny metal) + Chlorine (greenish poisonous gas) → Sodium Chloride (NaCl) • Na + Cl → NaCl Classification of Matter

  8. Compound Analogy: Like letters (elements) in the alphabet joined together to make words (compounds) Classification of Matter

  9. Pure Substances • Either a pure element or a pure compound (e.g. pure water). • They have unique and constant properties: • – Melting point • – Boiling point • – Density Classification of Matter

  10. Pure Substances • Example: Water (H2O) is a compound: • – Melting point/Freezing point, 0 °C • – Boiling point, 100 °C • – Density, 1 g/cm3 Classification of Matter

  11. Mixtures • Most matter is composed of Mixtures of two or more pure substances. • Can be separated by physical means (a magnet, a filter, pouring, evaporation, …) Classification of Matter

  12. Mixtures a) Solutions: particles in a mixture are too small to be seen. All liquid and gas solutions are clear or transparent (may have color); e.g. salt dissolved in water, sugar dissolved in water. Classification of Matter

  13. Mixtures b) Emulsions: mixture of two liquids (suspension) that do not dissolve in each other (oil & water). Classification of Matter

  14. Mixtures c) Mechanical: particles in the mixture (solid-liquid, or solid-solid) can be observed with the naked eye or microscope (water & sand; sand & iron filings). Classification of Matter

  15. Mixtures d) Gels: liquid particles trapped in a network of solid particles (gel deodorant, Jello) Classification of Matter