MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE yes no yes no Is the composition uniform? Can it be chemically decomposed? Colloids Suspensions Matter Flowchart MATTER yes no Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element
PURE SUBSTANCE yes no only one type of atom? MATTER yes no exactly the same properties/composition? MIXTURE Element Compound yes no yes no single atoms? metals and nonmetals? monoatomic molecular ionic molecular
Pure substances • Every sample has exactly the same properties and composition • Examples: H2O will always consist of 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8% oxygen N2 will always consist of 100% nitrogen
Pure Substances • Element • composed of only one type of atom • EX: copper wire, aluminum foil
Pure Substances • Compound • composed of more than one type of atom which are chemically combined in a fixed ratio • properties differ from those of individual elements • EX: table salt (NaCl)
Pure Substances • Law of Definite Composition • A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements. • Law of Multiple Proportions • Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds.
Pure Substances • For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.
Mixtures • Physical blendof two or more pure substances. • Properties and composition depend on the relative amounts of the components. Heterogeneous Homogeneous
Tyndall Effect Mixtures • Solution • homogeneous • very small particles • no Tyndall effect • particles don’t settle • EX: rubbing alcohol
Mixtures • Solution - can occur between any state of matter • Solid in liquid - Kool-aid • Liquid in liquid - antifreeze • Gas in gas - air • Solid in solid - brass • Gas in liquid - soda
Solutions • Like all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components. • Some can be separated easily by physical means: rocks and marbles, iron filings and sulfur • Other methods: distillation- takes advantage of different boiling points
Mixtures • Colloid • heterogeneous • medium-sized particles • Tyndall effect • particles don’t settle • EX: milk
Mixtures • Suspension • heterogeneous • large particles • Tyndall effect • particles settle • EX: fresh-squeezed lemonade
Mixtures • Examples: • mayonnaise • muddy water • fog • saltwater • Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension
composed of one pure substance composed of two or more pure substances chemical combination physical combination Definite composition Variable composition Compound or Mixture Compound Mixture
Element Compound Mixture Which is it?
Matter Flowchart • Examples: • graphite • pizza • sugar (sucrose) • soda element hetero. mixture compound solution