EMERGENCY RELIEF LOGISTICS (ERL) GROUP MEMBERS: Audra-Jade Morrison Bevon Forbes Ryan McPherson Florida International University Logistics Engineering EIN 5346
INTRODUCTION Several denotations for ERL • Emergency Relief/Aid Logistics • Emergency Management Logistics • Humanitarian Relief/Aid Logistics • Disaster Relief/Aid Logistics Definition of ERL Emergency relief logistics is the processes and systems involved in mobilizing people, resources, skills and knowledge, to help vulnerable people affected by disaster.
DISASTER CLASSIFICATION • Definition of Disaster • Disaster is defined as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover. • Classification • Man-made • Natural Table showing classification of disasters Source: Wassenhove, Van L.N (2006). “Blackett Memorial Lecture - Humanitarian Aid Logistics: Supply Chain Management in Higher Gear”. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 475-489. Fontainebleau, France.
DISASTER CLASSIFICATION • Number of Disasters 1970-2008 • Of 311, catastrophic events in 2008, 137 were natural and 174 were man-made • Most of 240,500 people who died of catastrophes in 2008 are from Asia Source: Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd. “Natural Catastrophes and Man-made Disasters in 2008”, Nov 2, 2009.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE Three phases in the disaster management cycle: Source: http://www.scl.gatech.edu/research/humanitarian/GTHHL-Intro_to_humanitarian_logistics.pdf
LOGISTICS IN EMERGENCY RELIEF Emergency logistics requires: • Delivery of the appropriate supplies in good condition, when and where they are needed. • A wide range of transport. • Limited, rapid, and specific deliveries from outside the area. • A system of prioritizing various relief inputs. • Storing, staging, and moving bulk commodities. • Moving people • Coordination and prioritization of the use of limited and shared transport assets. • Possible military involvement in logistics support
LOGISTICS IN EMERGENCY RELIEF Before an emergency logistics may entail During an emergency logistics may entail • Acquiring equipment • Stockpiling supplies • Designating emergency facilities • Establishing training facilities • Establishing mutual aid agreements • Preparing a resource inventory • Providing utility maps to emergency responders • Providing material safety data sheets to employees • Moving backup equipment in place • Arranging for medical support, food and transportation • Arranging for shelter facilities • Providing for backup power • Providing for backup communications
ERL SUPPLY CHAIN Characteristics of ERL Supply Chain: “The ultimate humanitarian supply chain management has to be able to respond to multiple interventions often on a global scale , as quickly as possible and within a short time frame. Therefore supply chains need to be multiple, global, dynamic and temporary.” Source: Wassenhove, Van L.N (2006). “Blackett Memorial Lecture - Humanitarian Aid Logistics: Supply Chain Management in Higher Gear”. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 475-489. Fontainebleau, France.
ERL SUPPLY CHAIN Stakeholders in the ERL supply chain: Donors and Suppliers • Government • Companies • Foundations Recipient Agency • Government • NGO’s • -Red Cross • - World Vision Delivering Agency • Government agencies • Military • Global and local NGO’s • Local organizations People in Need
ERL SUPPLY CHAIN Source:
ERL SUPPLY CHAIN Decentralized supply chain Example IFRC decentralized supply chain • Pre-positioning and pooling of relief items • Quicker response during the emergency phase • Cheaper than the centralized model • The IFRC selected three locations for RLUs: • Dubai - Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, • Kuala Lumpur -Asia and Australia, • Panama - Americas Source: Gatignon, A., Wassenhove, van L.N., Charles, A. (2010). The Yogyakarta earthquake: Humanitarian relief through IFRC’s decentralized supply chain. International Journal of Production Economics.
TECHNOLOGIES IN ERL Mobile Emergency Response Support (MERS) Provide various mobile support for on-site management of response activities. Three broad categories: • operational support elements • communications equipment and operators • logistics support
TECHNOLOGIES IN ERL Enhanced Logistics Intra-theater Support Tool (ELIST) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) transportation fore-casting simulation tool also applied to emergency relief operations • Simulation of movements to eliminate bottlenecks and increase resources where needed.
TECHNOLOGIES IN ERL Satellite Imagery Mapping Can be used in all three phases of the relief process: • Mitigation -integrated with GIS can be used as inputs to logistic planning for response scenarios, evacuation routes planning and public education programs • Response – help to identify routes that have become impassable. • Recovery - used to carry out needs assessment by identifying the number, location and extent of damaged infrastructure in the recovery phase. Source: EU/UN/The World Bank (2010) http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/site_images/hi-res_10490.jpg
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL • Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM)-Jamaica • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) –United States of America • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and its affiliate bodies - International • United Nations (UN) and its affiliated bodies - International
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL ODPEM- Jamaica The only government agency to provide disaster management functions in Jamaica. Its operations are designed towards primarily: • National preparedness • Collaboration with other agencies and bodies to encourage and support disaster preparedness and mitigation measures • Providing early warning, emergency response, relief and recovery operations in emergency situations. • Providing training in all areas of disaster management.
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL ODPEM has five divisions. The Preparedness and Emergency Operations Division (PEOD) in particular has responsibility for preparedness and emergency response and recovery . It has three units: • Preparedness and emergency operations • Logistics • Telecommunications ODPEM Preparedness and emergency operations unit – Country is divided into 4 regions for preparedness and response. Each is assigned Regional Coordinators.
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL ODPEM Logistics unit - Some of the activities of the Unit include: • The adequate provision of relief supplies in the National Emergency Stores. • Under the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) warehousing facilities is provided for other territories. • The allocation and management of funds for relief operations • The inventory of basic comfort items • Meet needs of other relevant relief agencies during an emergency.
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL ODPEM Logistics unitcon’t: • Maintains contact with the ports of entry • The monitoring of three regional stores in the parishes of St. James, St. Mary and Manchester. ODPEM Telecommunications unit – monitors the radio station based at ODPEM: • Communicates with Parish Disaster Committees island wide via a VHF Radio Network. • Monitors wind speed and collects rainfall data in the corporate area via a weather station. • Communicates with international agencies via a two-way tower antennae that links the ODPEM station to overseas agencies.
County Resources State Resources Presidential Declaration Federal Response Plan Funds ($) ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) – responsible for coordinating response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States that overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities. Operation Process: County/City State Federal Source: U.S. Military Engineering Corp ppt presentation
TRANSPORTATION COMMUNICATIONS PUBLIC WORKS & ENGINEERING FIREFIGHTING INFORMATION MASS CARE RESOURCE SUPPORT MEDICAL SEARCH & RESCUE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS FOOD ENERGY MILITARY SUPPORT ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL FEMA - Emergency Support Functions or ESF’s 12 functions plus Military Support: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Dept of transportation National communications system U.S. army corps of engineers Dept of agriculture Federal emergency management agency American red cross General services administration Dept health and human services Federal emergency management agency Environmental protection agency Dept of agriculture Dept of energy Dept of defense Source: U.S. Military Engineering Corp ppt presentation
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies – International • Largest humanitarian organization • There are 186 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies • Coordinates and directs international assistance to disaster victims. • 97 million volunteers ,300,000 employees, who provide assistance to some 233 million beneficiaries each year .
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL • United Nations (UN) – International • United Nations Joint Logistics Centre (UNJLC) is normally responsible for coordinating logistics in a humanitarian operation. • Its activities include: • Assess inter-agency logistics co-ordination in on-going emergencies. • Information Management (IM) • Maintaining a generic website www.unjlc.org which includes facilities for operational specific applications. • Development and maintaining reporting formats, GIS, mapping facilities • Working with WFP, OCHA and WHO/PAHO in assessing agency commodity tracking systems and identifying how these systems could best interface ;
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN ERL UN Agency Responsibilities : Source: http://www.unjlc.org/tools/FOM/04a.htm
CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN ERL • Demand analysis • Inventory planning and control • Regional coordination and synergies • In-kind donations management • Collaboration among organizations • Constant communication • Socio-economic impact assessment • Understanding regional political, economic and socioeconomic conditions • Utilizing local capacity and capabilities • Humanitarian operation evaluation
CHALLENGES OF ERL Emergency relief exercises are usually executed in complex environments due to: • Dependence on voluntary contributions • Involvement of many stakeholders • High levels of uncertainty (demand, supplies, assessment) • Unsolicited donations • Degraded infrastructure and no established logistics community • Delivery constraints due to Government or military involvement • Politically unstable environment
ERL versus COMMERCIAL LOGISTICS • In ERL time value is more important than transportation value. • Inventory management in relief operations is unique in that the time value of the commodities are much greater than the inventory carrying costs. .
ERL versus COMMERCIAL LOGISTICS Source: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/31881727/HUMANITARIAN-RELIEF-CHAINS
CASE - HAITI EARTHQUAKE January 12, 2010 A magnitude 7 earthquake –the biggest to hit Haiti for 200 years and according to some organizations one of the most complex relief operations in recent memory. The Damage: • as many as 200,000 people dead • up to a million homeless. The Relief Effort: • Red Cross: 2000 Haitian Red Cross volunteers among first responders - 1-week 400 international Red Cross and Red Crescent workers deployed. - 1-month 600 deployed. - 30 National Red Cross or Red Crescent Societies including, a strong regional presence. - They set up emergency hospitals, got basic health care functioning, and by month’s end were treating 1,600 patients a day; Relief supplies had been delivered to more than 122,000 people; 14 million litres of water provided, and 70 relief flights had landed in Haiti or the neighbouring Dominican Republic Source: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, (2010). “Haiti from tragedy to opportunity: Special Report, One Month on”.
CASE - HAITI EARTHQUAKE The Relief Effort Source: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Cross Societies
CASE - HAITI EARTHQUAKE The Logistics Challenges • Haiti has no army • Port-au-Prince lost almost all Communications during the earthquake • The earthquake struck the capital city • Lack of Government coordination • Population concentration in immediate disaster area • Airport damage - one working runway • Roads and Ports - Haiti has only one port. • Overwhelming and uncoordinated international donations Source: http://soldiersangelsgermany.blogspot.com/2010/01/afsoc-combat-controllers-direct-800.html Source: http://www.zoriah.net/blog/2010/02/haiti-earthquake-before-and-after-pictures.html Source: http://www.helium.com/items/1712488-why-haiti-is-a-logistical-nightmare-for-earthquake-relief-efforts
CONCLUSION • Logistics is critical in Emergency Management • Takes place in complex environment due to high uncertainty • Preparedness and Pre-planning is critical • Decentralized supply chain is more efficient than centralized supply chain in ERL • Not all the principles in commercial logistics can be transferred to ERL